1. The Scope of the Problem 2. Health Implications 3. What to Do?
WHAT IS IT? Medical Definition: –120% of ideal body weight –Morbid obesity: More that 100 pounds above ideal body weight
All experts agree: Obesity is rapidly rising in the Western World - at least 1/3 of Americans are obese. –Increasing in all ages, sexes, races –Women and non-whites are the worst
World Health Organization: AN EPIDEMIC! Western Europe: 10-25% U.S.: 20-30% Eastern Europe, Mediterranean, U.S. Afro- American Women: 40% Higher Rates: American Indians, Hispanic Americans, Pacific Islanders Highest in the World: Melanesians, Micronesians, Polynesians (Island of Nauru: 70% or women and 65% of men) Key to the problem lies in evermore widespread sedentary lifestyle and a diet overrich in calories and fats.
Children Not Exempt! Mothers from Southern Europe Snacks Excessive TV Viewing Short Sleep Duration In obese French children, risk factors for obesity were: (The relationship between short sleep duration persisted independently of all the others.) Locard et al. Risk factors of obesity in five year old population. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1992 Oct 16:10;721
TV and Obese Children Metabolic rate of children 8-12 while watching TV lower than with children just doing nothing or resting Lower metabolism and high fat TV watching snacks are obesity risk factors Children watch an average of 26 hours of weekly TV 1 of 4 children obese
Health Implications Insulin Resistance Diabetes Type II Hypertension Dyslipidemia Coronary Heart Disease Gout Osteoarthritis Gall Bladder Disease & Stones Cancers of Bowel, Breast, GU Tract Skin Diseases (especially fungal diseases) Sleep Apnea with chronic hypoxia Greatly increases risks of: Solomon et al. Obesity & motality: a review of epidemiological data. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 Oct 66:4 1044S
Obesity Increases Breast Cancer Risk Pre-menopause Risk Thin1 Overweight2x Obese3x Post-menopause Risk 1 5x 12x
Increased risk of death from cancer and obesity % of increased risk of death Above average body weight
Psychological & Social Issues Low self-esteem Increase in depression Difficulties in getting and holding a job Tendency toward social isolation Decreased attractiveness for the opposite sex
Relation of a Healthy Lifestyle to a Healthy Old Age A British study found - Surprise!: …clear benefits of leading a healthy lifestyle. 7000 men ages 40-65 were followed for 15 years. Smoking & overweight: risk of death or serious illness more than doubled Average 50 year old man had a 75% chance of reaching 65 without heart disease, stroke, or diabetes Never smoked, active, normal weight gave a 90% chance Former smokers, active, normal weight gave an 86% chance Very obese, sedentary, smokers had only a 42% chance of disease-free survival to 65. Archives Int Med 1998 158:2433
WHAT TO DO? Principles of weight control 1. Dont plan to go on a diet. Plan to change your eating habits - PERMANENTLY 2. Become a vegetarian! –Natural plant foods are: High in fiber, mostly low in fat, high unrefined carbohydrates Filling, satisfy appetite, relatively low calorie Decrease cholesterol, other blood fats Protective against heart disease, cancer, diabetes –Animal products are: Low or no fiber, high fat, too high in protein Calorie dense: small amounts yield high calories Raise cholesterol, other blood fats Increase risk of heart disease, cancer, etc.
3. Decide beforehand how much to eat; NEVER have seconds! 4. NEVER eat between meals! 5. Two-meal a day plan: large breakfast, good lunch, no supper 6. Fast a day or two (if very overweight) a week, not consecutively –Eliminates calories for the day –Improves insulin receptors, decreasing insulin resistance –Helps your will power! 7. LOTS of water between meals (herbal teas okay) Drink instead of eat! 8. Eliminate free fats (butter, lard, margarine, oils) - even vegetable oils and refined carbohydrates (sugar, white flour, meal, etc)
9. REGULAR exercise; preferably daily. Walking is one of the best, but any is okay. –Especially after meals –At least 30 minutes a day; try to gradually increase to 1 hour or more. (Not necessary all at one time.) 10. Be aware of the bodys set points (tendency for the body to maintain a metabolic equilibrium). –Factors that lower set point (helpful): Short-term fasting Exercise Low fat & refined carbohydrate foods Avoid large meals, especially in evening or night Avoid eating between meals Avoid too many varieties at meals Possibly: raw foods
Factors that raise set point (deleterious) Inactivity Fatty foods Refined carbohydrates Evening or night meals Between-meal snacks Overeating, even of healthful foods Skipping breakfasts Staying up too late at night Alcohol & caffeine Crash diets
11. Remember that we lose weight in a stair step fashion; not in a straight line. That is, we may lose quickly to begin with; then there is a plateau for a time; then a period of rapid loss again; then another plateau, etc. The plateauing is due to changes in the set points. If the plateau is too prolonged, one can become discouraged. Often a short fast, or increased physical exercise, or a short period with an all- raw diet, or various combinations of these will reset the set point, and start the weight loss again.
12. Finally, courage and an abundance of faith in the healing power of God is all- important. Satan wants you to destroy yourself, and he will help you do it if you allow him. But our loving Lord is yearning to assist you in getting the victory over Satan and self- Beloved, I wish above all things that thou mayest prosper and be in health. Claim the promises, and mighty things can be accomplished.