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Agenda Introduction to Ablerex Introduction to Harmonics Distortion Causes of Harmonics Effects of Current Harmonics Distortion Ablerex Solution to.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda Introduction to Ablerex Introduction to Harmonics Distortion Causes of Harmonics Effects of Current Harmonics Distortion Ablerex Solution to."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Agenda Introduction to Ablerex Introduction to Harmonics Distortion Causes of Harmonics Effects of Current Harmonics Distortion Ablerex Solution to Harmonics Q&A

4 Founded in 1990 Headquarters: Taipei, Taiwan More than 900 employees Worldwide Listed in Taiwan Stock Market 2010 revenues: US$120million Introduction to Ablerex We help the World to a cleaner & more efficient electrical power

5 Company Profile: Record breaking IPO share price when listed in 2009 First Asian company to research and develop Active Harmonic Filter Frost & Sullivan award best Global Business Development Strategy Leadership in Harmonic Filter market Introduction to Ablerex

6 Factory 2 & 3 – SuZhou, China R&D Centre – KaohSiung, Taiwan Factory 1 – Taipei, Taiwan

7 This presentation we will deal specifically with: - Harmonics - Excessive Neutral Current (3 rd Harmonics, 150Hz) Introduction to Harmonics Distortion

8 What is Harmonics? Generally, electronics equipment drawn current in a non-linear fashion. Especially equipment that utilize switch mode power supply. These non linear current waveforms are at higher frequency and in multiples of the fundamental (50Hz) Frequency (eg. 5 th Harmonics = 5 x 50Hz = 250Hz). These multiples waveforms will then integrated onto the fundamental and caused the fundamental waveform to become distorted. i.e. Harmonics is, Its Frequency Components Fundamental v i

9 - Impedance Current + Harmonics Voltage Utility Non Linear Load

10 The source of harmonic currents: 1) Single Phase Loads: Phase to Neutral Normally equipment consist of Switch Mode Power Supplies. eg. These equipment Generate high 3rd harmonic They contribute to Neutral Currents in Electrical System Ph N FL Is Fax Machines Copiers 2) Single Phase Loads: Phase to Phase eg. Welders, HID lighting Generate high 3rd harmonic which flow only in the phase conductors. v L R C U r D

11 The source of harmonic currents: 3) Three-phase loads: a) Rectifiers / Chargers b) controlled Graetz bridges eg. VSD, UPS These equipment generate high harmonic currents of orders 5, 7, 11, 13, … L1 Z CL2 L3 e1 e2 e3 iIIs M

12 Predominant Harmonics signature of some typical non-linear loads

13 Harmonics problem can be traced to 2 phenomena: 1) Current Distortions 2) Voltage Distortions Note: Current distortions causes Voltage Distortions. Hence, reduce Current distortions will also reduce Voltage distortions Network Z IhIh VhVh +- V h = Volt Harmonics Distortion I h = Harmonics Current feedback Z = Impedance

14 Total Harmonics Distortion-Current To measure Current Distortion, we use THDi (Total Harmonics Distortions Current) THDi is define as: THDI is a measure of the amount by which a composite Current waveform is distorted from an ideal Sine Wave Eg. Typical 6P UPS Rectifier THDi is 30%

15 Effects of Current Harmonics Distortions Distorted voltage/Current in distribution networks Decrease utility/Generator efficiency Possible damage to capacitor banks due to resonance Overheating to Electronics Systems causing component failure Overheating to Neutral Conductor * Overheating to Transformer* Nuisance tripping of breakers & protective relay* * Caused by 3rd harmonics in Neutral Conductor – Very Common Problem!

16 Neutral Current Harmonics - 3 rd Harmonics Phenomenon Third (triple-n) harmonics in the phase conductors add into the Neutral conductor:- Hence Neutral current can be up to 173% of phase currents ( I neutral-rms = 3 x I phase-rms ), Causing>>> 1) Transformer Overheating due to Eddy Current 2) Neutral Conductors Must be Oversize 3) Nuisance Tripping of Breaker

17 3 rd Harmonics Phenomenon – Transformer Overheating / De-rating To avoid overheating neutral conductor must be 200% rated, But There is No Such Standard Transformer! Hence Transformer need to be oversized Neutral Current circulating in the delta winding Standard transformer does not cancel harmonics! 3 rd Harmonis current from each phase add to neutral up to 200%

18 Transformer De-rating for Non-Linear Loads A Transformer carrying 2/3 non-linear load needs to be doubled in size Sources: ( 1 ) BSRIA ( 2 ) ANSI/IEEE Std C57.110

19 3rd Harmonics Phenomenon – Nuisance Tripping of Breaker Nuisance tripping can occur for several reasons: 1)Current circuit breakers being electromechanical devices, They do not sum high frequency components and therefore can trip spuriously 2)The current flowing in the circuit will be higher than expected due to the presence of harmonic currents. The trip settings may therefore be incorrect.

20 1) Bracing – Eg. Oversized Neutral, Oversized Breaker, K-Factor Transformer or specify limitation of Harmonics produce by equipment 2) Blocking - Eg. Line Reactor (Choke), Isolation Transformer 3) Filtering - Eg. Passive Filter (Tunned L/C Filter) 4) Active Phase Shifting & Canceling - Eg. Active Harmoncis Filter Common Practice and available equipment for Harmonics reduction

21 Advantages & Disadvantages of…. 1) Bracing a) Simple & Easy to apply, specify during design stage, but… a)Oversized Neutral is good practice, but Breaker has to be oversized too. Many user specify 200% Neutral rated Breaker but They Do not Exist! This force manufacturer to supply double-size breaker to protect Neutral (eg. 200A for 80A) thus increasing cost! b) K-Factor Transformer is relatively low cost and can prevent overheating problem cause by harmonics, but… They Do Not Reduce or Eliminate Harmonics

22 Advantages & Disadvantages of …. 2) Blocking a) Line Reactor (Choke) Mostly use in Motor Drive (VFD), relatively cheap if only 1 or few Motor Drives involved and the Drive load is low but… Not effective enough to reduce harmonics current below the level of causing problem (THDi <5%) when many Drives are presents b) Isolation Transformer Easily available and use simple technology but… They DO NOT remove 5 th, 7 th, 11 th..harmonics. They can only block 3 rd & other triple-n harmonics (9 th, 15 th.. ). DIAGRAM (with reactors) C e1 e2 e3 M iIIs

23 Advantages & Disadvantages of …. 3) Filtering Passive Filter (Tuned L/C Filter) is the earliest Harmonics Filter use to eliminate harmonics. It is very low cost and use simple design consisting of Inductors & Capacitors, but… They can only eliminate 1 single offending harmonics For example, a 250Hz tuned Filter can elimiate 5 th harmonics only. Require detailed network study to identify the culprit harmonics before designing the correctly tuned filter. May cause Resonance problem if Capacitor banks are use together in the same network. Sensitive to Main Utility Frequency & impedance change

24 A Revolution in Solving Harmonic Distortions >>>Active Phase Shifting & Canceling Method…. Composite o Phase Shifted harmonics =Fundamental … Utilize in Enersine Active Power Filter (APF) Technology

25 - Impedance Current + Harmonics Voltage APF Utility Non Linear Load

26 APF Operation Principle – Step 1 Measure the harmonic current from harmonics loads via auxiliary CTs* Ih waveform CTs * 2 CTs for 3W system, 3CTs for 4W system

27 If waveform APF Operation Principle – Step 2 Inject the equal amount of harmonic currents in opposite phase to the load CTs

28 APF Operation Principle – Step 3 The harmonic current of loads is being cancelled and a near perfect sine wave is present (View from Source). Is waveform Note! Enersine APF removes the cause of the problem not the effect

29 The Product : Awarded with USA patent no Come in Various Capacity & Configurations Wall Mount – 25A & 50A Floor Standing – 100A, 150A & 200A New Modular Type – 30A/module, 120A/system 2U 3U Control Module Power Module

30 The Product : Standard unit configurations: Shunt Connected to Loads Parallel up to 6 units (Same Capacity) 1 2 6

31 The Product cont : Modular Configurations : (1)Vertical parallel > up to 4 x 30Amps per 1 controller (2) Horizontal Parallel > up to 8 systems with Same or Different capacities 60A90A120A 30A

32 APF Unique Features Enersine APF offer 2 types of Control Panel Simple LED Panel Advance LCD panel

33 APF Unique Features cont Main Menu View Enersine RUNNING >>>> LOAD RATE76% DATE TIME 08:30:00 INFORMATION METER CONTROL Advance LCD panel – only Active Filter in the market with user friendly Blue Back Light display

34 APF Unique Features cont Parameters Display Viee LOAD_SIDE KVA=293.01Freq= 50.0HzPF = 0.83 Vrs = 400 VVst = 398 VVtr = 400 V THD= 0.06%THD= 0.06%THD= 0.08% Ir = 425 AIs = 425 AIt = 425 A THD= 32.44%THD= 32.37%THD= 32.39% In = 387 A

35 APF Unique Features cont Waveform Display View WAVEFORM_VIEW WINDOW 1 = Ir(S)WINDOW 2 = Ir(L)

36 APF Unique Features cont Spectrum Display – Up to 31 st order SPECTRUM_VIEW VIEW= Ir(L) H05 = 6.54% THD = 32.44% Freq = 50.0Hz

37 APF Unique Features cont Events Log – Up to 300 events

38 APF Unique Features cont Enersine APF allows 2 different CTs configurations to meet various site conditions: 2 - Source Sensing (Close Loop) 1 - Load Sensing (Open Loop ) CT APF o/p

39 Product Features VS Benefits Features: 1.Full DSP technology 2.Global Compensation from 2nd to 51st orders 3.Selective compensation up to 12 different harmonic orders simultaneously 4.Treat Neutral current harmonics up to 3 times of Phase current harmonics 5.Able to compensate Reactive power 6.Not affected by Frequency change thus no Resonant Risk 7.No Overload risk Benefits: 1.Dynamic performance 2.Remove harmonics almost 100% 3. Able to treat loads with specific harmonic orders more effectively 4. Neglect the needs for 200% rated Neutral, K-factor transformer,etc. 5.Improve Power factor (leading or lagging) to loads 6.Able to work with Gen set and VSD 7.Does not affect critical operation

40 UPS APF Motor APF Although Active Filters can be located in a variety of places, its best to locate as close to harmonic source as possible – For Cost effectiveness

41 Application Case Study Generator 800kVA Supplied UPS 300kVA using Enersine 150A APF To achieve: Clean Harmonics from UPS Input Pure Sine-wave Perfect Voltage Waveform Stabilize Generator Reduce Losses of Generator

42 Ch1(red) : Supply Voltage, THDV=17.4% Ch2(blue): Supply Current, THDI=24.5% Application Case study cont – When Enersine Off (Waveforms at Source)

43 Application Case study cont – When Enersine ON (Waveforms at Source) Ch1(red) : Supply Voltage, THDV=3.1% Ch2(blue): Supply Current, THDI=2.3%

44 Application Case Study Cont - Test Results Enersine THDV at VsTHD at IsIhar at IsTHD at IrIhar at Ir Off17.4%24.5%111A24.5%111A On3.1%2.3%9A29.9%137A Test Result Vs: Source Voltage, Ihar: Harmonic Current(rms) Harmonic Attenuation Ratio = 137/9 = 15.2

45 Application with various brands of VFD – Without Enesine VFD Frequency(Hz) THDi(%) AB ABB Danfoss Vacon

46 Application with various brands VFD (motor drive) – With Enersine VFD+APF Frequency(Hz) THDi(%) AB ABB Danfoss Vacon

47 Sizing of Enersine APF (1) Determine if the goal is to reduce harmonics 1)from a particular equipment (use 3W APF) such as Rectifier or VFD, 2)or to reduce the requirement for 200% rated neutrals (use 4W APF) in a electrical network.

48 Sizing of Enersine APF (2) – To use with 3Wire Equipment Provide us the Data of that particular equipment:- a) Equipment Rating - KVA/kW/Horse Power b) Max. Operating Current (if available) c) Overall Efficiency d) Existing THDi % e) Operating Voltage f) Input Choke Rating (For VFD only) Alternatively, for Quick selection (Budgetary purpose):- 1)For UPS = 50% of UPS capacity. Eg. 100Kva UPS use 50A APF 2)For VFD with i/p Choke = 100% of VFD Horsepower. Eg. 100Hp use 100Amp APF 3)For VFD without i/p Choke = 150% of VFD Horsepower. Eg 100Hp use 150Amp APF

49 Sizing of Enersine APF (3) – To use with 4Wire (Neutral) Electrical Network (Distribution Boards) 1). For Existing Network, We/Our Distributor provide on site Harmonic measurement 2). For New Building/Distribution Network – Rule of Thumb – (i) 30% of Main Breaker Rating for multiple IT (switch-mode Power supply) Loads (ii) 50% of Main Breaker Rating for combinations of IT Loads, VFD & Electronics Lightings 90 APF 300A TPN MCCB

50 Enersine APF Installed Base… 6 Storey New Microsoft office, Spore Credit Agricole New Office, Spore BNP New Office, Spore Power Seraya Habour Front Office, Spore Visa Call Centre, Spore Republic Poly Woodland campus Pikiran Rakyat Press, Indonesia Gramedia Indonesia Tai Pin Hospital, Msia Utusan Press, Msia Putra Jaya Government offices, Msia Emerson UPS, Spore & Msia TSMC FAB14, Taiwan Chung Hwa Telecom, Taiwan Quanhai TFT LCD Factory, Taiwan And Many more….

51 For more information on this product, please contact Electrotest Ltd on or THANK YOU, & HAVE A GREAT DAY!


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