2Agenda Introduction to Ablerex Introduction to Harmonics Distortion Causes of HarmonicsEffects of Current Harmonics DistortionAblerex Solution to HarmonicsQ&A
3Introduction to Ablerex We help the World to a cleaner & more efficient electrical powerFounded in 1990Headquarters: Taipei, TaiwanMore than 900 employees WorldwideListed in Taiwan Stock Market2010 revenues: US$120million
4Introduction to Ablerex Company Profile:Record breaking IPO share price when listed in 2009First Asian company to research and develop Active Harmonic FilterFrost & Sullivan award best Global Business Development Strategy Leadership in Harmonic Filter market
5Introduction to Ablerex R&D Centre – KaohSiung, TaiwanFactory 1 – Taipei, TaiwanFactory 2 & 3 – SuZhou, China
6Introduction to Harmonics Distortion This presentation we will deal specifically with:- Harmonics- Excessive Neutral Current (3rd Harmonics, 150Hz)
7What is Harmonics?Generally, electronics equipment drawn current in a non-linear fashion. Especially equipment that utilize switch mode power supply.viThese non linear current waveforms are at higher frequency and in multiples of the “fundamental” (50Hz) Frequency (eg. 5th Harmonics = 5 x 50Hz = 250Hz). These multiples waveforms will then integrated onto the fundamental and caused the fundamental waveform to become distorted.i.e. Harmonics is, Its Frequency Components≠ Fundamental
8Utility+ImpedanceVoltageCurrentHarmonicsNon Linear Load-
9The source of harmonic currents: PhNFLIs1) Single Phase Loads: Phase to NeutralNormally equipment consist of Switch ModePower Supplies.eg.These equipment Generate high 3rd harmonicThey contribute to ‘Neutral Currents’ in Electrical SystemFax MachinesCopiersvLRCUrD2) Single Phase Loads: Phase to Phaseeg. Welders, HID lightingGenerate high 3rd harmonic which flow only in the phaseconductors.
11Predominant Harmonics “signature” of some typical non-linear loads
12Harmonics problem can be traced to 2 phenomena: 1) Current Distortions2) Voltage DistortionsNote: Current distortions causes Voltage Distortions.Network ZIhVh+-Vh = Volt Harmonics DistortionIh = Harmonics Current feedbackZ = ImpedanceHence, reduce Current distortions will also reduce Voltage distortions
13Total Harmonics Distortion-Current To measure Current Distortion, we use “THDi” (Total Harmonics Distortions Current)THDi is define as:THDI is a measure of the amount by which a composite Current waveform is distorted from an ideal Sine WaveEg. Typical 6P UPS Rectifier THDi is 30%
14Effects of Current Harmonics Distortions Distorted voltage/Current in distribution networksDecrease utility/Generator efficiencyPossible damage to capacitor banks due to resonanceOverheating to Electronics Systems causing component failureOverheating to Neutral Conductor *Overheating to Transformer*Nuisance tripping of breakers & protective relay** Caused by 3rd harmonics in Neutral Conductor – Very Common Problem!
15Neutral Current Harmonics - 3rd Harmonics Phenomenon Third (triple-n) harmonics in the phase conductors add into the Neutral conductor:-Hence Neutral current can be up to 173% of phase currents ( Ineutral-rms = √3 x Iphase-rms ),Causing>>>1) Transformer Overheating due to Eddy Current2) Neutral Conductors Must be Oversize3) Nuisance Tripping of Breaker
163rd Harmonics Phenomenon – Transformer Overheating / De-rating Standard transformer does not cancel harmonics!Neutral Current circulating in the delta windingTo avoid overheating neutral conductor must be 200% rated, But There is No Such Standard Transformer! Hence Transformer need to be oversized3rd Harmonis current from each phase add to neutral up to 200%
17Transformer De-rating for Non-Linear Loads A Transformer carrying 2/3 non-linear load needs to be doubled in sizeSources: (1) BSRIA (2) ANSI/IEEE Std C57.110
183rd Harmonics Phenomenon – Nuisance Tripping of Breaker Nuisance tripping can occur for several reasons:1)Current circuit breakers being electromechanical devices, They do not sum high frequency components and therefore can trip spuriously2)The current flowing in the circuit will be higher than expected due to the presence of harmonic currents. The trip settings may therefore be incorrect.
19Common Practice and available equipment for Harmonics reduction 1) Bracing– Eg. Oversized Neutral, Oversized Breaker, K-Factor Transformer or specify limitation of Harmonics produce by equipment2) Blocking- Eg. Line Reactor (Choke), Isolation Transformer3) Filtering- Eg. Passive Filter (Tunned L/C Filter)4) Active Phase Shifting & Canceling- Eg. Active Harmoncis Filter
20They Do Not Reduce or Eliminate Harmonics Advantages & Disadvantages of….1) Bracinga) Simple & Easy to apply, specify during design stage, but…Oversized Neutral is good practice, but Breaker has to be oversized too. Many user specify 200% Neutral rated Breaker butThey Do not Exist!This force manufacturer to supply double-size breaker to protect Neutral (eg. 200A for 80A) thus increasing cost!b) K-Factor Transformer is relatively low cost and can prevent overheating problem cause by harmonics, but…They Do Not Reduce or Eliminate Harmonics
21Advantages & Disadvantages of…. 2) Blockinga) Line Reactor (Choke)Mostly use in Motor Drive (VFD), relatively cheap if only 1 or few Motor Drives involved and the Drive load is low but…Not effective enough to reduce harmonics current below the level of causing problem (THDi <5%) when many Drives are presentsb) Isolation TransformerEasily available and use simple technology but…They DO NOT remove 5th, 7th, 11th..harmonics. They can only block 3rd & other triple-n harmonics (9th, 15th.. ).DIAGRAM (with reactors)Ce1e2e3MiIIs
22Advantages & Disadvantages of…. 3) FilteringPassive Filter (Tuned L/C Filter) is the earliest Harmonics Filter use to eliminate harmonics. It is very low cost and use simple design consisting of Inductors & Capacitors, but…They can only eliminate 1 single offending harmonicsFor example, a 250Hz tuned Filter can elimiate 5th harmonics only.Require detailed network study to identify the culprit harmonics before designing the correctly tuned filter.May cause Resonance problem if Capacitor banks are use together in the same network.Sensitive to Main Utility Frequency & impedance change
23…Utilize in Enersine™ Active Power Filter (APF) Technology A Revolution in Solving Harmonic Distortions >>>Active Phase Shifting & Canceling Method….Composite+ 180o PhaseShifted harmonics=Fundamental…Utilize in Enersine™ Active Power Filter (APF) Technology
24Utility+ImpedanceAPFVoltageCurrentHarmonicsNon Linear Load-
25APF Operation Principle – Step 1 Measure the harmonic current from harmonics loads via auxiliary CTs*CTsIh waveform* 2 CTs for 3W system, 3CTs for 4W system
26APF Operation Principle – Step 2 Inject the equal amount of harmonic currents in opposite phase to the loadCTsIf waveform
27APF Operation Principle – Step 3 The harmonic current of loads is being cancelled and a near perfect sine wave is present (View from Source).Is waveformNote! Enersine APF removes the cause of the problem not the effect
28The Product : Awarded with USA patent no. 6717465 Come in Various Capacity & ConfigurationsNew Modular Type – 30A/module, 120A/systemFloor Standing – 100A, 150A & 200A2U3UControl ModulePower ModuleWall Mount – 25A & 50A
29The Product : Standard unit configurations: Shunt Connected to Loads Parallel up to 6 units (Same Capacity)126
30The Product con’t : Modular Configurations : (1)Vertical parallel > up to 4 x 30Amps per 1 controller(2) Horizontal Parallel > up to 8 systems with Same or Different capacities30A60A90A120A
31APF Unique Features Enersine APF offer 2 types of Control Panel Advance LCD panelSimple LED Panel
32APF Unique Features con’t Advance LCD panel – only Active Filter in the market with user friendly Blue Back Light displayMain Menu ViewEnersineRUNNING >>>>LOAD RATE76%DATETIME 08:30:00INFORMATIONMETERCONTROL
33APF Unique Features con’t Parameters Display VieeLOAD_SIDEKVA= Freq= 50.0Hz PF = 0.83Vrs = V Vst = V Vtr = VTHD= % THD= % THD= %Ir = A Is = A It = ATHD= % THD= % THD= %In = A
35APF Unique Features con’t Spectrum Display – Up to 31st orderSPECTRUM_VIEWVIEW= Ir(L)H05 = %THD = 32.44%Freq = 50.0Hz
36APF Unique Features con’t Events Log – Up to 300 events
37APF Unique Features con’t Enersine APF allows 2 different CTs configurations to meet various site conditions:APF o/pCTAPF o/pCT1 - Load Sensing (Open Loop)2 - Source Sensing (Close Loop)
38Product Features VS Benefits Full DSP technologyGlobal Compensation from 2nd to 51st ordersSelective compensation up to 12 different harmonic orders simultaneouslyTreat Neutral current harmonics up to 3 times of Phase current harmonicsAble to compensate Reactive powerNot affected by Frequency change thus no Resonant RiskNo Overload riskBenefits:Dynamic performanceRemove harmonics almost 100%Able to treat loads with specific harmonic orders more effectivelyNeglect the needs for 200% rated Neutral, K-factor transformer,etc.Improve Power factor (leading or lagging) to loadsAble to work with Gen set and VSDDoes not affect critical operation
39Although Active Filters can be located in a variety of places, it’s best to locate as close to harmonic source as possible – For Cost effectivenessAPFUPSAPFMotor
40Application Case Study Generator 800kVA Supplied UPS 300kVA using Enersine 150A APFTo achieve:Clean Harmonics from UPSInput Pure Sine-wavePerfect Voltage WaveformStabilize GeneratorReduce Losses of Generator
41Application Case study con’t – When Enersine Off (Waveforms at Source) Ch1(red) : Supply Voltage, THDV=17.4%Ch2(blue): Supply Current, THDI=24.5%
42Application Case study con’t – When Enersine ON (Waveforms at Source) Ch1(red) : Supply Voltage, THDV=3.1%Ch2(blue): Supply Current, THDI=2.3%
43Application Case Study Con’t - Test Results EnersineTHDV at VsTHD at IsIhar at IsTHD at IrIhar at IrOff17.4%24.5%111AOn3.1%2.3%9A29.9%137AVs: Source Voltage, Ihar: Harmonic Current(rms)Harmonic Attenuation Ratio = 137/9 = 15.2
44Application with various brands of VFD – Without Enesine Frequency(Hz)3035404550THDi(%)AB84.5975.1558.4946.8240.52ABB89.8482.0973.6860.2551.03Danfoss94.6386.4174.5260.9848.12Vacon62.8851.4540.2635.8232.27
45Application with various brands VFD (motor drive) – With Enersine VFD+APFFrequency(Hz)3035404550THDi(%)AB4.618.104.22.1686.24ABB5.16.447.817.617.05Danfoss5.236.598.047.667.28Vacon4.245.315.285.335.46
46Sizing of Enersine APF (1) Determine if the goal is to reduce harmonicsfrom a particular equipment (use 3W APF) such as Rectifier or VFD,or to reduce the requirement for 200% rated neutrals (use 4W APF) in a electrical network.
47Sizing of Enersine APF (2) – To use with 3Wire Equipment Provide us the Data of that particular equipment:-a) Equipment Rating - KVA/kW/Horse Powerb) Max. Operating Current (if available)c) Overall Efficiencyd) Existing THDi %e) Operating Voltagef) Input Choke Rating (For VFD only)Alternatively, for Quick selection (Budgetary purpose):-For UPS = 50% of UPS capacity. Eg. 100Kva UPS use 50A APFFor VFD with i/p Choke = 100% of VFD Horsepower. Eg. 100Hp use 100Amp APFFor VFD without i/p Choke = 150% of VFD Horsepower. Eg 100Hp use 150Amp APF
48Sizing of Enersine APF (3) – To use with 4Wire (Neutral) Electrical Network (Distribution Boards) 1). For Existing Network, We/Our Distributorprovide on site Harmonic measurement2). For New Building/Distribution Network –Rule of Thumb –(i) 30% of Main Breaker Rating for multipleIT (switch-mode Power supply) Loads(ii) 50% of Main Breaker Rating forcombinations of IT Loads, VFD &Electronics Lightings90 APF300A TPN MCCB
49Enersine APF Installed Base… 6 Storey New Microsoft office, S’poreCredit Agricole New Office, S’poreBNP New Office, S’porePower Seraya Habour Front Office, S’poreVisa Call Centre, S’poreRepublic Poly Woodland campusPikiran Rakyat Press, IndonesiaGramedia IndonesiaTai Pin Hospital, M’siaUtusan Press, M’siaPutra Jaya Government offices, M’siaEmerson UPS, S’pore & M’siaTSMC FAB14, TaiwanChung Hwa Telecom, TaiwanQuanhai TFT LCD Factory, TaiwanAnd Many more….
50THANK YOU, & HAVE A GREAT DAY! For more information on this product, please contact Electrotest Ltd on orTHANK YOU,&HAVE A GREAT DAY!