# Agenda Introduction to Ablerex Introduction to Harmonics Distortion

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Agenda Introduction to Ablerex Introduction to Harmonics Distortion
Causes of Harmonics Effects of Current Harmonics Distortion Ablerex Solution to Harmonics Q&A

Introduction to Ablerex
We help the World to a cleaner & more efficient electrical power Founded in 1990 Headquarters: Taipei, Taiwan More than 900 employees Worldwide Listed in Taiwan Stock Market 2010 revenues: US\$120million

Introduction to Ablerex
Company Profile: Record breaking IPO share price when listed in 2009 First Asian company to research and develop Active Harmonic Filter Frost & Sullivan award best Global Business Development Strategy Leadership in Harmonic Filter market

Introduction to Ablerex
R&D Centre – KaohSiung, Taiwan Factory 1 – Taipei, Taiwan Factory 2 & 3 – SuZhou, China

Introduction to Harmonics Distortion
This presentation we will deal specifically with: - Harmonics - Excessive Neutral Current (3rd Harmonics, 150Hz)

What is Harmonics? Generally, electronics equipment drawn current in a non-linear fashion. Especially equipment that utilize switch mode power supply. v i These non linear current waveforms are at higher frequency and in multiples of the “fundamental” (50Hz) Frequency (eg. 5th Harmonics = 5 x 50Hz = 250Hz). These multiples waveforms will then integrated onto the fundamental and caused the fundamental waveform to become distorted. i.e. Harmonics is, Its Frequency Components≠ Fundamental

Utility + Impedance Voltage Current Harmonics Non Linear Load -

The source of harmonic currents:
Ph N FL Is 1) Single Phase Loads: Phase to Neutral Normally equipment consist of Switch Mode Power Supplies. eg. These equipment Generate high 3rd harmonic They contribute to ‘Neutral Currents’ in Electrical System Fax Machines Copiers v L R C U r D 2) Single Phase Loads: Phase to Phase eg. Welders, HID lighting Generate high 3rd harmonic which flow only in the phase conductors.

The source of harmonic currents:
3) Three-phase loads: a) Rectifiers / Chargers b) controlled Graetz bridges eg. VSD, UPS These equipment generate high harmonic currents of orders 5, 7, 11, 13, … L1 Z C L2 L3 e1 e2 e3 i I Is M

Predominant Harmonics “signature” of some typical non-linear loads

Harmonics problem can be traced to 2 phenomena:
1) Current Distortions 2) Voltage Distortions Note: Current distortions causes Voltage Distortions. Network Z Ih Vh + - Vh = Volt Harmonics Distortion Ih = Harmonics Current feedback Z = Impedance Hence, reduce Current distortions will also reduce Voltage distortions

Total Harmonics Distortion-Current
To measure Current Distortion, we use “THDi” (Total Harmonics Distortions Current) THDi is define as: THDI is a measure of the amount by which a composite Current waveform is distorted from an ideal Sine Wave Eg. Typical 6P UPS Rectifier THDi is 30%

Effects of Current Harmonics Distortions
Distorted voltage/Current in distribution networks Decrease utility/Generator efficiency Possible damage to capacitor banks due to resonance Overheating to Electronics Systems causing component failure Overheating to Neutral Conductor * Overheating to Transformer* Nuisance tripping of breakers & protective relay* * Caused by 3rd harmonics in Neutral Conductor – Very Common Problem!

Neutral Current Harmonics - 3rd Harmonics Phenomenon
Third (triple-n) harmonics in the phase conductors add into the Neutral conductor:- Hence Neutral current can be up to 173% of phase currents ( Ineutral-rms = √3 x Iphase-rms ), Causing>>> 1) Transformer Overheating due to Eddy Current 2) Neutral Conductors Must be Oversize 3) Nuisance Tripping of Breaker

3rd Harmonics Phenomenon – Transformer Overheating / De-rating
Standard transformer does not cancel harmonics! Neutral Current circulating in the delta winding To avoid overheating neutral conductor must be 200% rated, But There is No Such Standard Transformer! Hence Transformer need to be oversized 3rd Harmonis current from each phase add to neutral up to 200%

A Transformer carrying 2/3 non-linear load needs to be doubled in size Sources: (1) BSRIA (2) ANSI/IEEE Std C57.110

3rd Harmonics Phenomenon – Nuisance Tripping of Breaker
Nuisance tripping can occur for several reasons: 1)Current circuit breakers being electromechanical devices, They do not sum high frequency components and therefore can trip spuriously 2)The current flowing in the circuit will be higher than expected due to the presence of harmonic currents. The trip settings may therefore be incorrect.

Common Practice and available equipment for Harmonics reduction
1) Bracing – Eg. Oversized Neutral, Oversized Breaker, K-Factor Transformer or specify limitation of Harmonics produce by equipment 2) Blocking - Eg. Line Reactor (Choke), Isolation Transformer 3) Filtering - Eg. Passive Filter (Tunned L/C Filter) 4) Active Phase Shifting & Canceling - Eg. Active Harmoncis Filter

They Do Not Reduce or Eliminate Harmonics
Advantages & Disadvantages of…. 1) Bracing a) Simple & Easy to apply, specify during design stage, but… Oversized Neutral is good practice, but Breaker has to be oversized too. Many user specify 200% Neutral rated Breaker but They Do not Exist! This force manufacturer to supply double-size breaker to protect Neutral (eg. 200A for 80A) thus increasing cost! b) K-Factor Transformer is relatively low cost and can prevent overheating problem cause by harmonics, but… They Do Not Reduce or Eliminate Harmonics

2) Blocking a) Line Reactor (Choke) Mostly use in Motor Drive (VFD), relatively cheap if only 1 or few Motor Drives involved and the Drive load is low but… Not effective enough to reduce harmonics current below the level of causing problem (THDi <5%) when many Drives are presents b) Isolation Transformer Easily available and use simple technology but… They DO NOT remove 5th, 7th, 11th..harmonics. They can only block 3rd & other triple-n harmonics (9th, 15th.. ). DIAGRAM (with reactors) C e1 e2 e3 M i I Is

3) Filtering Passive Filter (Tuned L/C Filter) is the earliest Harmonics Filter use to eliminate harmonics. It is very low cost and use simple design consisting of Inductors & Capacitors, but… They can only eliminate 1 single offending harmonics For example, a 250Hz tuned Filter can elimiate 5th harmonics only. Require detailed network study to identify the culprit harmonics before designing the correctly tuned filter. May cause Resonance problem if Capacitor banks are use together in the same network. Sensitive to Main Utility Frequency & impedance change

…Utilize in Enersine™ Active Power Filter (APF) Technology
A Revolution in Solving Harmonic Distortions >>>Active Phase Shifting & Canceling Method…. Composite + 180o Phase Shifted harmonics =Fundamental …Utilize in Enersine™ Active Power Filter (APF) Technology

Utility + Impedance APF Voltage Current Harmonics Non Linear Load -

APF Operation Principle – Step 1
Measure the harmonic current from harmonics loads via auxiliary CTs* CTs Ih waveform * 2 CTs for 3W system, 3CTs for 4W system

APF Operation Principle – Step 2
Inject the equal amount of harmonic currents in opposite phase to the load CTs If waveform

APF Operation Principle – Step 3
The harmonic current of loads is being cancelled and a near perfect sine wave is present (View from Source). Is waveform Note! Enersine APF removes the cause of the problem not the effect

The Product : Awarded with USA patent no. 6717465
Come in Various Capacity & Configurations New Modular Type – 30A/module, 120A/system Floor Standing – 100A, 150A & 200A 2U 3U Control Module Power Module Wall Mount – 25A & 50A

The Product : Standard unit configurations: Shunt Connected to Loads
Parallel up to 6 units (Same Capacity) 1 2 6

The Product con’t : Modular Configurations :
(1)Vertical parallel > up to 4 x 30Amps per 1 controller (2) Horizontal Parallel > up to 8 systems with Same or Different capacities 30A 60A 90A 120A

APF Unique Features Enersine APF offer 2 types of Control Panel
Advance LCD panel Simple LED Panel

APF Unique Features con’t
Advance LCD panel – only Active Filter in the market with user friendly Blue Back Light display Main Menu View Enersine RUNNING >>>> LOAD RATE 76% DATE TIME 08:30:00 INFORMATION METER CONTROL

APF Unique Features con’t
Parameters Display Viee LOAD_SIDE KVA= Freq= 50.0Hz PF = 0.83 Vrs = V Vst = V Vtr = V THD= % THD= % THD= % Ir = A Is = A It = A THD= % THD= % THD= % In = A

APF Unique Features con’t
Waveform Display View WAVEFORM_VIEW WINDOW 1 = Ir(S) WINDOW 2 = Ir(L)

APF Unique Features con’t
Spectrum Display – Up to 31st order SPECTRUM_VIEW VIEW= Ir(L) H05 = % THD = 32.44% Freq = 50.0Hz

APF Unique Features con’t
Events Log – Up to 300 events

APF Unique Features con’t
Enersine APF allows 2 different CTs configurations to meet various site conditions: APF o/p CT APF o/p CT 1 - Load Sensing (Open Loop) 2 - Source Sensing (Close Loop)

Product Features VS Benefits
Full DSP technology Global Compensation from 2nd to 51st orders Selective compensation up to 12 different harmonic orders simultaneously Treat Neutral current harmonics up to 3 times of Phase current harmonics Able to compensate Reactive power Not affected by Frequency change thus no Resonant Risk No Overload risk Benefits: Dynamic performance Remove harmonics almost 100% Able to treat loads with specific harmonic orders more effectively Neglect the needs for 200% rated Neutral, K-factor transformer,etc. Improve Power factor (leading or lagging) to loads Able to work with Gen set and VSD Does not affect critical operation

Although Active Filters can be located in a variety of places, it’s best to locate as close to harmonic source as possible – For Cost effectiveness APF UPS APF Motor

Application Case Study
Generator 800kVA Supplied UPS 300kVA using Enersine 150A APF To achieve: Clean Harmonics from UPS Input Pure Sine-wave Perfect Voltage Waveform Stabilize Generator Reduce Losses of Generator

Application Case study con’t – When Enersine Off (Waveforms at Source)
Ch1(red) : Supply Voltage, THDV=17.4% Ch2(blue): Supply Current, THDI=24.5%

Application Case study con’t – When Enersine ON (Waveforms at Source)
Ch1(red) : Supply Voltage, THDV=3.1% Ch2(blue): Supply Current, THDI=2.3%

Application Case Study Con’t - Test Results
Enersine THDV at Vs THD at Is Ihar at Is THD at Ir Ihar at Ir Off 17.4% 24.5% 111A On 3.1% 2.3% 9A 29.9% 137A Vs: Source Voltage, Ihar: Harmonic Current(rms) Harmonic Attenuation Ratio = 137/9 = 15.2

Application with various brands of VFD – Without Enesine
Frequency(Hz) 30 35 40 45 50 THDi(%) AB 84.59 75.15 58.49 46.82 40.52 ABB 89.84 82.09 73.68 60.25 51.03 Danfoss 94.63 86.41 74.52 60.98 48.12 Vacon 62.88 51.45 40.26 35.82 32.27

Application with various brands VFD (motor drive) – With Enersine
VFD+APF Frequency(Hz) 30 35 40 45 50 THDi(%) AB 4.68 5.6 6.13 5.94 6.24 ABB 5.1 6.44 7.81 7.61 7.05 Danfoss 5.23 6.59 8.04 7.66 7.28 Vacon 4.24 5.31 5.28 5.33 5.46

Sizing of Enersine APF (1)
Determine if the goal is to reduce harmonics from a particular equipment (use 3W APF) such as Rectifier or VFD, or to reduce the requirement for 200% rated neutrals (use 4W APF) in a electrical network.

Sizing of Enersine APF (2) – To use with 3Wire Equipment
Provide us the Data of that particular equipment:- a) Equipment Rating - KVA/kW/Horse Power b) Max. Operating Current (if available) c) Overall Efficiency d) Existing THDi % e) Operating Voltage f) Input Choke Rating (For VFD only) Alternatively, for Quick selection (Budgetary purpose):- For UPS = 50% of UPS capacity. Eg. 100Kva UPS use 50A APF For VFD with i/p Choke = 100% of VFD Horsepower. Eg. 100Hp use 100Amp APF For VFD without i/p Choke = 150% of VFD Horsepower. Eg 100Hp use 150Amp APF

Sizing of Enersine APF (3) – To use with 4Wire (Neutral) Electrical Network (Distribution Boards)
1). For Existing Network, We/Our Distributor provide on site Harmonic measurement 2). For New Building/Distribution Network – Rule of Thumb – (i) 30% of Main Breaker Rating for multiple IT (switch-mode Power supply) Loads (ii) 50% of Main Breaker Rating for combinations of IT Loads, VFD & Electronics Lightings 90 APF 300A TPN MCCB

Enersine APF Installed Base…
6 Storey New Microsoft office, S’pore Credit Agricole New Office, S’pore BNP New Office, S’pore Power Seraya Habour Front Office, S’pore Visa Call Centre, S’pore Republic Poly Woodland campus Pikiran Rakyat Press, Indonesia Gramedia Indonesia Tai Pin Hospital, M’sia Utusan Press, M’sia Putra Jaya Government offices, M’sia Emerson UPS, S’pore & M’sia TSMC FAB14, Taiwan Chung Hwa Telecom, Taiwan Quanhai TFT LCD Factory, Taiwan And Many more….

THANK YOU, & HAVE A GREAT DAY!