2 What Is It?Backward Design is a process of lesson planning created by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe and introduced in Understanding by Design (1998).This lesson design process concentrates on developing the lesson in a different order than in traditional lesson planning.
5 “A ship with no port of destination, knows no favorable wind.” Anonymous
6 A Concept’s Whose Time Has Come Ralph Tyler in1949 wrote:“ Educational objectives become the criteria by which materials are selected, content outlined, instructional procedures are developed, and tests and examinations are prepared…”
7 “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People” Stephen R. Covey To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means to know where you’re going so that you better understand where you are now so that the steps you take are always in the right direction.
8 Traditional Common Planning Mistakes Cute activities that don’t really go anywhere or are too loosely connected to the objective.Fun activities, just because they are fun.Marching through the textbooks.Both are symptomatic of a lack of intellectual focus on targeted goals
9 Traditionally teacher’s have used: Table of ContentsActivitiesAssessmentsIn traditional lesson planning, goals are supposed to be developed before activities, but often, activities come first and we work instructional objectives around them. For example: “We have an apple theme. How can we use apples in math?”
11 Backward Design: Shift Your Focus from: “Teaching” for mere content masteryTeaching discrete skills, out of context, on neat-and-clean exercises, with simple answersLinear coverage of all content, as if everything is equal and learnable by one exposure
12 Backward Design asks you: To Focus on Students’ Learning: “Learning” how to USE content effectively.Draw upon many skills, in realistic contexts via complex tasks and problems.Recursive curriculum with clear priorities goals.…and many chances to understandTextbook as a resource, in support of explicit learning.
13 Shift Your Perspective! It’s NOT what I teach but how do I get it learnedIt’s NOT the input but the yieldIt’s NOT the syllabus but the results
15 Identify desired results. Determine acceptable evidence.Plan learning experiences and instruction.Wiggins, G & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
16 Stage 1:Identify Desired Results What is important for students to be able to do, know, or perform?What enduring understandings are needed?What state, national, and district standards need to be met?What are the essential questions?
17 Enduring Understanding Worth being familiar with.“Nice to know”Important to know and do.Foundational skill“Enduring Understanding”Assessments:Worth being familiar with and Important to know and do:Traditional quizzes and testsPaper/pencilSelected responseConstructed responseImportant to know and do and Enduring understandingPerformance tasks and projectsOpen endedComplexauthenticCore taskWiggins, G & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
18 History Assessments: Significance of the Magna Carta Limits on Power Rule of LawAssessments:Worth being familiar with and Important to know and do:Traditional quizzes and testsPaper/pencilSelected responseConstructed responseImportant to know and do and Enduring understandingPerformance tasks and projectsOpen endedComplexauthentic
19 The Constitution Assessments: Limits on Power Three Branches of GovernmentChecksandBalancesAssessments:Worth being familiar with and Important to know and do:Traditional quizzes and testsPaper/pencilSelected responseConstructed responseImportant to know and do and Enduring understandingPerformance tasks and projectsOpen endedComplexauthentic
20 European History Assessments: Congress of Vienna Competing Groups form AlliancesBalanceOfPowerAssessments:Worth being familiar with and Important to know and do:Traditional quizzes and testsPaper/pencilSelected responseConstructed responseImportant to know and do and Enduring understandingPerformance tasks and projectsOpen endedComplexauthentic
21 The Big Question?How do I determine what is an…..“Enduring Understanding?”What are the four filters?
22 Filter 1 Does the “enduring value” have value beyond the classroom? Jerome Bruner, The Process of Education (1960) wrote…..“is this worth knowing as an adult?”The Big Idea is also known as theLinchpin idea.
23 Filter 2To what extent does the idea, topic, or process allow the student to use the information, or ‘doing' the subject?For example…Interpreting historical events,Researching and critiquing books,Debating social and economic policies
24 Filter 3 Will the idea, topic or process require Uncoverage? Are there ideas or concepts that are not obvious or counterintuitive?Will these ideas or concepts need significant teachers’ guidance?
25 Filter 4 Will the idea, topic, or process: …offer the potential for engaging students?For example…what does it mean to be independent?
26 Historical Enduring Understandings… History involves interpretation; historians can and do disagree.The study of history involves understanding the various schools of thought.Historical interpretations are influenced by one’s perspective (e.g. freedom fighters vs. terrorists).
27 What Enduring Understanding’s Do You Teach? 1.2.3.
28 What are Essential Questions? Have no simple “right“ answer; they are meant to be argued.Are designed to provoke student inquiry.Often address the conceptual or philosophical foundations of a discipline.Raise other important questionsOccur frequently throughout the learning processStimulate continue rethinking of big ideas, and prior lessons.Examples
29 Examples Is the judicial branch too powerful? What do we mean by “all men are created equal?”What role did/does religion play in the development of US history?How and why do we provide checks and balances on government?Who are our global friends and why?
31 Stage 2:Determine Acceptable Evidence How will enduring understanding be measured?
32 Think like an assessor! A Common Mistake…. Teacher’s think goal/objective….then activities.
33 Decide upon the Assessment … and actually create the test/assessment BEFORE you begin day one of instruction!This will provide the “road map” for what is to be taught.
34 Assessments should vary! Both formal and informalScopeTime frameSettingStructure
35 In the assessment process students should demonstrate their understanding’s through…. … ‘the six facets of understanding.’
36 Six Facets of Understanding: students… can explain - accuratecan interpret - meaningfulcan apply - effectivehave perspective - crediblecan empathize - sensitivehave self-knowledge – self aware
37 Select Assessment Type Ask yourself, “What is the best way for students to demonstrate what they know and can do?”Traditionally...Paper and pencil test? (Multiple choice, short answers, true/false, single essay)
38 Traditional assessments have students… Report the information…Recite..’Just the facts…’Use the lower level of Bloom’s Taxonomy…
39 Backward design challenges teachers to develop … Summative assessments, sometimes called “performance assessments.”Summative assessments incorporate the strengths of traditional assessment with a product or performance task.Move towards the upper end of Bloom’s taxonomy.
40 Summative Assessments … require students to apply skills, concepts, and understandings to a new problem in a different context or to a different text(s).
41 Possible Summative Written Assessments BiographiesEditorialsHistorical FictionPosition PaperResearch Report
42 Possible Oral Performances DebatesHistorical InterviewsOral Report/PresentationSpeeches
43 Possible Visual Products Diagram/Diorama/Power PointGraphMapPolitical CartoonPoster
44 Assessment Continuum Observation/Dialogue Informal Checks for understandingObservation/DialogueAcademic promptPerformance task/projectQuiz/TestWiggins, G & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
45 Remember….Assessments are interwoven throughout the entire unit of study.Assessments are a part of the learning process and should occur throughout the sequence, not just at the end.
46 Develop a Scoring Guide/Rubric Purpose?To provide clear descriptors about how performance will be judged.Result?Your grading will be more reliable.
47 Sample US History Rubric Clear, well-developed thesis that in a sophisticated fashion with key components…Clear, developed thesis that deals with the key issues…General thesis responding to all components superficially…Little or no analysis…(Education Testing Service/College Board, 1992, p. 25)
48 Rubric Sites to Explore Because there is NEVER enough time… borrow, borrow, borrow!!!
49 Stage 3: Plan Learning Experiences. Learning experiences are planned after desired results and the method of measurement of those results are identified.What will the students need to know in order to achieve the desired goal, learning, or understanding?Various strategies are used to plan the learning.
50 Delivery of Instruction How will you teach this standard/objective?Think Learning Strategies!!Consider learning styles
51 Learning strategies…Teachers need to design the sequence of learning experiences that students will undertake to develop understanding.Beyond learning about a subject, students will need lessons that enable them to experience directly the inquiries, arguments, applications, and points of view underneath the facts and opinions they learn if they are to understand them.(Wiggins and McTighe,Understanding by Design, p 99)
52 Good Teaching “..is dependent on good design. Good design and good teaching are dependent upon clear purposes.”(Wiggins and McTighe,Understanding by Design, p.159)
53 Delivery of Assessment! Test time!!Don’t forget to vary the type!
54 Make appropriate changes! ReflectionTake the time to reflect upon the success of the lesson/unit/assessment.Was the objective achieved? Did the students learn? How did they score? What could you have done better or in a different manner?Make appropriate changes!
55 RevisionsCreating a unit using the backward design planning process is not a neat, tidy or easy process. It requires ongoing revisions and flexibility.
56 Students in the revision process… They raise questions that will cause you to revisit your ideas.Each group will have their own learning styles to consider and factor in.As the needs and strengths of the students change so will the assessments.
57 And…Teachers might have to let go some of their favorite, old reliable lessons, because they just don’t fit anymore.
58 And finally…As you teach the unit, you will also make continual adjustments based on the formative assessment data you gather about what students know and can do. This will take time.And besides, reflection and revision is something all good teachers do!