Presentation on theme: "Culture and Personality Processes: Conceptual and Methodological Issues Veronica Benet-Martinez University of California at Riverside, USA Universitat."— Presentation transcript:
Culture and Personality Processes: Conceptual and Methodological Issues Veronica Benet-Martinez University of California at Riverside, USA Universitat Rovira i Virgili March 23-25, 2010
DAY 2 Culture and Personality Taxonomies *Required Readings: Benet-Martínez, V. & Waller, N. G. (1997). Further evidence for the cross- cultural generality of the Big Seven model: Imported and indigenous Spanish personality constructs. Journal of Personality, 65, 567-598. Aaker, J., Benet-Martínez, V., & Garolera, J. (2001). Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: A study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 249-264.
CULTURE AND PERSONALITY TRAITS: LEXICAL APPROACH Key idea: Language as a window to study the personality of a particular culture My work: Exploration of basic dimensions of personality description in Spanish Method: Combined Emic-Etic
Which are the most basic dimensions of personality? Is this basic structure universal? --> Long-lasting debate over the number and nature of the fundamental dimensions of personality
PSYCHO-LEXICAL APPROACH Natural language as a window to study cultural universals and differences in personality FUNDAMENTAL LEXICAL HYPOTHESIS: Those psychological constructs that are the most salient in peoples lives will eventually become encoded into their language The more important is such construct: (1) the more likely it is to be expressed as a single word, (2) overepresented in the language, and (3) the more languages and cultures will have a word for it. (Goldberg, 1982)
Do the Big 5 fully capture the domain of personality description? What is the structure of English personality lexicon if you dont exclude evaluations, states, and social roles?
ExtroversionAgreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Culture Human Personality Dimensions: Big Five HP
BIG SEVEN : Big Five plus two independent evaluative dimensions POSITIVE VALENCE Outstanding Ordinary Impressive Average Excellent Not exceptional POWER Exceptional Admirable Important ESTEEM NEGATIVE VALENCE Wicked Awful Dangerous MORALITY Disgusting Vicious Treacherous Original Eng. studies: Tellegen & Waller, 1987; Waller, 2000 Facets of Pval and Nval: Benet-Martinez & Waller, 2002
BASIC FACETS OF THE EVALUATIVE PERSONALITY DOMAIN: Benet-Martínez & Waller (2002). From adorable to worthless: Implicit and self-report structure of highly-evaluative personality descriptors. EJP 1. Distinction (first-class vs. mediocre) 2. Worth (gem vs. meaningless) 3. Evilness (repulsive vs. adorable) NEGATIVE VALENCE 4. Conventionality (odd vs. traditional) 5. Stupidity ( lunkhead vs. competent) [replicated in both self-reports and semantic sortings] POSITIVE VALENCE
Are the American Big Seven (Five) cross-culturally robust in non Anglo-Germanic languages? Yes in Spanish (using translated American measures) (Benet-Martinez & Waller, 1995, JPSP; Benet-Martinez & John, 1998, JPSP) -> Can we conclude from this evidence that the American Big 7 represent the basic dimensions of personality description in Spanish? No --translated (imported) instruments superimpose a particular content and structure on the personality space of the other culture
NEED FOR ANOTHER STUDY THAT: (1) Identifies the basic indigenous dimensions of personality description in Spanish (2) Assesses the overlap/specificity between these indigenous Spanish dimensions and the American Big Seven (Five) Benet-Martínez & Waller (1997). Imported and indigenous Spanish personality constructs. Journal of Personality.
COMBINED ETIC-EMIC APPROACH : EMIC APPROACH: Reliance on indigenous measures or models in this study --> 299 indigenous Spanish personality adjectives (stratified sampling) PLUS ETIC APPROACH: Reliance on imported measures of models in this study --> Spanish-translated Big Seven and Big Five questionnaires Sample N = 894 Spaniards who completed both emic and etic measures
INDIGENOUS SPANISH PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS Examples of marker items (translated from Spanish) AFFECT
CONCLUSIONS FROM STUDIES: (1) There is considerable overlap between the indigenous Spanish Siete Grandes and the American Big 7 (1b) Exception: Pleasantness and Engagement (instead of E & N) (2) Positive and Negative Valence are personality constructs: a) cross-culturally and cross-linguistically robust b) independent of each other and of other personality attributes c) not subsumable by the Big Five
Is personality meaning representing passion& pleasure also found outside the individual (e.g., in Spanish cultural artifacts and practices) [personality culture]
PLEASANTNESS & ENGAGEMENT in Spain:Gran placer y poco duelo es el deseo de todo hombre (Much pleasure and little pain is every mans desire) --Spanish proverbSpaniards..... passion is the seed that brings them forth, and passion is the flower they bear --George Orwell (Homage to Catalonia)
ALMODOVARS FILMS: A celebration of pleasure/pain and passion Kinder, M. (1987). Pleasure and the New Spanish Mentality: A Conversation With Pedro Almodovar. Film Quarterly, vol 41.1, 33 - 44. Pally, M. (1991). The Politics of Passion: Pedro Almodovar and the Camp Esthetic. Cineaste Magazine, vol 12 issue 3.
Main Theoretical Framework u The meaning embedded in consumption symbols, such as commercial brands (e.g., Coke, Malboro), can serve to represent and institutionalize the values and beliefs of a culture. u Culture and psyche constitute each other
Psyche Culture Process of creating brands (psyche culture) Way in which brands are used (culture psyche) Main Theoretical Framework BRAND
PREVIOUS WORK: Aaker, J. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 342-352. Identification of US brand personality dimensions
Aaker, J. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 342-352. Please rate the extent to which the following personality traits describe Porsche. - Down-to-earth? - Exciting? - Competent? - Sexy? - Masculine?... u Over 100 traits (3 independent sources), more than 60 brands across categories
ExcitementSincerity Competence Ruggedness Sophistication BP N = 2,085 Aaker, J. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 342-352. US BRAND PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS
Sincerity Down-to-Earth: down-to-earth, family-oriented, simple Honesty: honest, sincere, real Wholesomeness: wholesome, original Cheerfulness: cheerful, friendly, sentimental
MOST RECENT WORK: Aaker, Benet-Martínez, & Garolera, J. (2001). Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: A study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. How generalizable are the five US brand personality dimensions to other cultures? Target cultures: Japan and Spain (two very different collectivist cultures)
For both Japan and Spain studies: Please rate the extent to which the following personality traits describe X. - Down-to-earth? - Exciting? - Competent? - Sexy? - Masculine?... u Over 100 traits (3 independent sources), more than 60 brands across categories
ExcitementSincerity Competence Peacefulness Sophistication BP N = 2,297 JAPANESE BRAND PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS
Discussion Relating culture-specific dimensions to findings from cultural psychology on needs, emotion, and traits: RUGGEDNESS: Emphasis on mastery and independence values (Schwartz, 1994)
Discussion Relating culture-specific dimensions to findings from cultural psychology work on needs, emotion, and traits: PEACEFULNESS: Emphasis on harmony values (Kim & Markus, 1999; Schwartz, 1994)
Discussion Relating culture-specific dimensions to findings from cultural psychology work on needs, emotion, and traits: PASSION: Emphasis on affective expression and autonomy (Schwartz, 1994; Benet-Martinez, 1999)