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Welcome to the Cognitive Model of Assessment

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1 Welcome to the Cognitive Model of Assessment
Begin Resources Adapted from Michael McKenna and Steven Stahl’s Cognitive Model of Assessment References

2 Resources Three Week Lesson Plan and Resources
Phonemic Awareness Resources Sight Word Resources Decoding Resources Fluency Resources Vocabulary Resources Comprehension Strategies Resources Text Structure Resources Home Back

3 If the Student has comprehension problems…
Check Oral Reading Fluency 1 3 Check Strategic Knowledge 2 Check Language Comp. Assessments Assessments Background Knowledge Strategies Problems? No Problems? Specific Purpose Vocabulary Knowledge of Structure General Purpose Back to Welcome

4 Assessment of Strategic Knowledge
Burke Reading Interview Reading Survey Textbook Interview Index of Reading Awareness Awareness of Purposes of Reading Interview Home Back

5 Teaching Comprehension Strategies
Instructional Strategies (scroll down) The core addresses comprehension strategies HM/Harcourt Leveled readers include comprehension strategies eMINTS FCRR Website 2-3 FCRR Website K-1 Comprehension Strategies from Help for Struggling Readers Home Back to Resources Back

6 Specific Purposes Checklist for Reading Purposes DRTA KWL
Listen-Read-Discuss PLAN Home Back

7 General Purposes Use the interviews found under the assessment of strategic knowledge tab to start a discussion about the general purposes of reading. Home Back

8 Concepts of Print Information and instructional suggestions for Concepts of Print Concepts of Print Checklist Concepts of Print Assessment Home Back

9 Background Knowledge General background knowledge can not really be assessed, but background knowledge about a certain topic can. Anticipation Guide Create a background knowledge questionnaire Background knowledge can be built through … specific activities and discussion before reading a story read alouds focused field trips Home Back

10 Vocabulary Because general vocabulary is such a large body, it is not typically assessed, but the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) can be used. A better idea is to assess certain vocabulary before reading a selection. Pre-reading vocabulary assessment Vocabulary is a major piece in the comprehension puzzle and must be strengthened!! Which Words Do I Teach? Vocabulary Instruction Resources Home Back

11 Vocabulary Instruction Resources
Four Square Vocabulary Map Word Knowledge Rating Checklist Stop and Think About It Vocabulary Instruction Activities Concept Circles Semantic Feature Analysis The Frayer Model Verbal and Visual Word Association Vocabulary Games and Activities More Activities for Vocabulary FCRR Website 2-3 FCRR Website K-1 Houghton Mifflin Leveled Readers (have some vocabulary work) Home Back to Resources Back

12 Which Words to Teach? Think about…
Would the students be able to explain these words using words that are already familiar to them? These words are not simply synonyms of familiar words, they are representing more precise or more complex forms of familiar words. Also Think about… Importance and utility: Words that are characteristic of mature language users and appear frequently across a variety of domains. Instructional potential: Students can build rich representations of them and their connections to other words and concepts. Conceptual understanding: Words for which students can understand the general concept but provide precision and specificity when describing the concept. Back

13 Knowledge of Structure
Assessment Resources Home Back

14 Resources for Text Structure
Houghton Mifflin Leveled Readers Materials from the core Core instruction involves text structures Re-teaching materials Extra Support Handbook FCRR Website 2-3 FCRR Website K-1 Graphic Organizers Text Structures and Graphic Organizers More Text Structures and Graphic Organizers Text Structures Info Home Back to Resources Back

15 Assessment of Text Structure
Assessment of text structure is typically done through a retelling. Students who lack knowledge of text structures will recall information randomly and haphazardly. A student who has knowledge of text structures will recall facts and information in a more organized fashion. Home Back

16 If the assessment data suggests the student has no problems in Oral Reading Fluency…
Decoding text is not an issue for the student. Look at the Language and Comprehension skills Home

17 If there are deficits in ORF…
Check & Decoding Skills Sight-Word Knowledge Assessments Assessments Problems? No Problems? Problems? No Problems? Home Back

18 Assessments for Sight Words
- Has a list of Dolch words per grade San Diego Quick Assessment - Lists the Fry 1st 300 words Home Back

19 If the assessment data suggests problems in Sight Vocabulary…
Make flashcards to practice the words Fry words 1-300 Dolch lists (On Cards) Use phrase and sentence cards to practice them in context Fry 1-100 Words Words Words Dolch Dolch phrases 1-11 Dolch sentences 1-11 Various web activities… Or just do a web search and you’ll probably find plenty of activities Make sure to continue by checking out Decoding Skills! Home Back to Resources Back

20 If the assessment data suggest the student has no problems in Sight Vocabulary…
This area may be OK. Practice words in context and continue to look at decoding (NWF) skills Check Decoding Skills Home Back

21 Oral Reading Fluency Assessments
DIBELS ORF Progress Monitoring Measures (http://dibels.uoregon.edu/) Leveled Reader Assessment Informal Reading Inventories 3 Minute Reading Assessment Observations Reading a-z (scroll down) easyCBM.com Home Back

22 Assessments for Decoding Skills
DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency (http://dibels.uoregon.edu/) McKenna and Stahl’s Informal Phonics Inventory Informal Phonics Inventory/PA Assessment Score Recording Sheet Reading a-z Alphabet Recognition DIBELS Letter Naming Fluency Kindergarten Reading survey (letter names and sounds) easyCBM.com Home Back

23 If the assessment data suggests problems in Decoding skills…
Check Phonemic Awareness Check Print Concepts Assessments Assessments and Suggestions Problems? No Problems? Home Back

24 If the assessment data suggests problems in Phonemic Awareness…
If students demonstrate difficulty in phonemic awareness, then they must focus on this skill. Phonemic awareness is usually taught orally and through pictures, but older students should focus on phonemic awareness through the use of letters as soon as possible. Students who are weak in PA should still focus on phonics instruction as well. Phonemic Awareness Resources Phonics Resources Home Back

25 Phonemic Awareness Resources
FCRR website 2-3 FCRR Website K-1 FreeReading.net DIBELS Interventions Patti’s Activities ProTeacher! Phonemic Awareness Games K-3 Learning Pages Literature for Literature Sound Boxes Home Back to Resources Back

26 If the assessment data suggest the student has no problems in Phonemic Awareness…
If the student has no problems in any aspects of phonemic awareness (blending, segmenting, substituting, omitting) then provide decoding instruction and necessary sight-word instruction. See links below for resources. Sight-Word Resources Phonics Resources Home Back

27 Decoding Resources Making Sense of Phonics (Isabel Beck)
Onset and Rime cards FCRR Website 2-3 FCRR Website K-1 FreeReading.net DIBELS Interventions Carl’s Corner Internet 4 Classrooms Alphabet Arc (Capital letters, Lowercase letters) Phonograms ranked by frequency Home Back to Resources Back

28 Phonological Awareness Assessments
DIBELS Initial Sound Fluency (ISF), and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) (http://dibels.uoregon.edu/) Yopp-Singer Phoneme Segmentation Test Informal Phonological Awareness Assessment Rosner (segmentation) and Roswell-Chall (blending) Informal Assessment of Phonological Awareness easyCBM.com Home Back

29 Check Sight-Word Knowledge
If the assessment data suggest the student has no problems in Decoding skills… If the student has no problems in Letter/sound identification as well as sound blending, and has no problems with Sight-Word knowledge, the student needs work on fluency. See the list of resources below. Check Sight-Word Knowledge Fluency Resources Home Back

30 Fluency Resources Five day leveled reader lesson plan Reader’s Theater
Aaron Shepard Teaching Heart Timeless Teacher Stuff (scroll down) Carl’s Corner (Look at topics on left) FCRR Website 2-3 FCRR Website K-1 Suggestions from Rasinski Intervention Central (scroll down) Home Back to Resources Back

31 References Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S. & Johnston, F. (2004). Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction (Third). New Jersey: Pearson. Beck, I. L. (2006). Making Sense of Phonics: The Hows and Whys. New York: The Guilford Press. Beck, Isabel L., Margaret G. McKeown, and Linda Kucan. (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York: The Guilford Press. Duffy, G. G. (2003). Explaining Reading: A Resource for Teaching Concepts, Skills, and Strategies. New York: Guilford Press. Fox, B. J. (2004). Word Identification Strategies: Phonics from a New Perspective. New Jersey: Pearson. McGee, L. M. & Morrow, L. M. (2005). Teaching Literacy in Kindergarten. New York: The Guilford Press. McKenna, M. C. (2002). Help for Struggling Readers: Strategies for Grades 3-8. New York: Guilford Press. McKenna, Michael C., and Steven A. Stahl. (2003) Assessment for Reading Instruction. New York: The Guilford Press. Rasinski, T. V. (2003). The Fluent Reader: Oral Reading Strategies for Building Word Recognition, Fluency, and Comprehension. New York: Scholastic Professional Books. Tyner, B. (2004). Small-Group Reading Instruction: A Differentiated Teaching Model for Beginning and Struggling Readers. New York: International Reading Association. Walpole, Sharon, and Michael C. McKenna. (2007) Differentiated Reading Instruction: Strategies for the Primary Grades. New York: Guilford Press. Back


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