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2 2 GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN: AFGHAN CARPETS Global Enabling Environment National Enabling Environment Local & regional banks, MFIs, hawala Design Transport & logistics, BDS, IT providers, insurance Weavers Wool, dye & chemical providers National Retailers Exporters Intl Retailers Traders Finishing (Cut & Wash) Intl Wholesalers 80% of finishing takes place in Pakistan and locally sold carpets are shipped BACK to Afghanistan

3 3 OTF GROUP 5 STEP STRATEGY FORMULATION PROCESS Step 1 Situation Analysis Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Carpet Industry Goals Understand Carpet Buyers Needs Articulate Afghan Carpet Market Positioning Develop Action Guidelines Research and Analysis Cluster Mobilization


5 5 THE ROLE OF PAKISTAN IN AFGHANISTANS CARPET VALUE CHAIN Building the Afghan value chain depends on capturing more of the value in production and trade that is currently occurring in Pakistan. In an insecure investment climate, the importance of mobility increases. Some elements of the value chain are more mobile than others. Partial financing from Pakistan Wool from Pakistan and Ghazni Production in Afghanistan Designs from Pakistan Sale to US & EU from Pakistan Transportation to foreign markets C&W in Pakistan Mobility: High Simple C&W facility but requires transportation of chemicals. Climate offers some restraints. Mobility: Medium Market demand linkages take time to be develop, though they can be accelerated through aggressive research. Mobility: High Majority has moved from Pakistan over only 3 year period Mobility: Medium Reliable global transportation links are difficult to develop, but alternatives exist. Mobility: Low Business networks are mobile, but take time to develop. Mobility: Medium Access to financing can be developed in the near term, but a trusted banking system will take longer. Mobility: High Wool production is increasing and imports can fill current gaps

6 6 There are mixed feelings about the importance of Pakistani partners with regard to the future of the Afghan carpet sector ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS OF AFGHANISTANS CARPET SECTOR: AREAS OF DIVERGENCE Distribution of Responses (1 to 7scale)MeanSurvey Question Agree (5-7)Disagree (1-3)Neutral (4) I cannot imagine replacing the role played by Pakistani carpet traders in the next 3-5 years The current success of my business is dependant on the role played by Pakistani carpet traders; for now I cannot do without them

7 7 Imam at Domotex – Germany 2006 ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS OF AFGHANISTANS CARPET SECTOR: NEW VS. OLD WAY Haji Zabibullah at work in Andkhoy Photos by Aref Adamali, OTF Group.


9 9 INTERNATIONAL CARPET MARKET: TOP IMPORTING COUNTRIES The US and Germany are by far the largest buyers, with the US passing Germany in Shrinking between , the carpet market is rebounding towards its peak in Value of Imports: Global Total and Top-5 Importers, (US$, millions) Source: USAID Trade Map 2004.

10 10 INTERNATIONAL CARPET MARKET: THE US MARKET India has dominated US carpet imports for the past 10 years, doubling its sales. China has since 2000 lost market share to Iran. Though still a comparatively small player, Nepal experienced impressive growth. Source: US International Trade Commission Value of US Imports from Top 5 Supplying Countries, (US$, millions) Growth Stagnation Revival Growth, IND3% IRN3% PAK13% CHN-17% NPL13% ALL4%

11 11 INTERNATIONAL CARPET MARKET: AVOIDING THE MOVE TO THE MIDDLE –Major manufacturers and distributors are increasingly turning towards becoming one-stop shops, stocking both tradition/oriental and modern designs, as well as machine-made and handmade carpets. –As machine weaving technologies improve, there is decreasing differentiation in the market between mid-range hand-knotted and good quality machine-made carpets. Were getting competition that we didnt get before from machine mades. - -US Importer Example of machine- made oriental carpet Example of handmade oriental carpet

12 12 INTERNATIONAL CARPET MARKET: CHANGING TRENDS –The market for high quality, traditional Afghan carpets is more stable. However, it has been marred by a limited range of designs and colors, as well as poor quality –There may be good growth opportunities around soft contemporary designs, such as Nepali/Tibetan carpets (which experienced over 250% import growth into the US between 1995 and 2004). Styles and colors are also changing more rapidly. While niches for traditional carpets are affected less by this, the opportunities for growth and volume may lie in serving trendy – but more volatile – markets. Source: OTF research; 1. National Floor Trends Magazine, April Examples of soft contemporary carpets

13 13 UNDERSTANDING BUYER NEEDS: PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES, OVERVIEW Color, design, type of fiber, and price are the most important product attributes in both the USA and Germany. Country of origin, quality guarantees, environmental and labor issues matter the least. Respondent rating (scale 1-5) Most important product attributes Ranked according to average of both countries (1= Not important; 5 = Very important) Brand attributes Not relevant Highly relevant

14 14 UNDERSTANDING BUYER NEEDS: PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES, COLOR & DESIGN Earth or natural tones are popular in both the US and Germany, as are contemporary designs and simple floral patterns. US market Product implications: –Kazakhs and Chobis in natural dyes would do well. –There is an untapped opportunity in earthy contemporary designs, such as Gabbehs. –Intricate Kashmiri-type carpets are unlikely to be popular. German market Product implications: –Chobis in natural dyes would do well. –There is an untapped opportunity in contemporary carpets, in both bright colors and earth tones. Color attributes (1 = Not important; 5 = Very important) Respondent rating (scale 1-5) Design attributes (1 = Not important; 5 = Very important) Respondent rating (scale 1-5) Commonality Divergence

15 15 UNDERSTANDING BUYER NEEDS: OPERATIONS, BUYER REQUIREMENTS Supplier reliability and ease of transaction are what matter most to buyers. Suppliers need not concern themselves with elements such as marketing, inventory or insurance management. Operational priorities Ranked according to average of both countries (1= Not important; 5 = Very important)

16 16 UNDERSTANDING BUYER NEEDS: OPERATIONS, SOURCING CHANNELS Almost half of US buyers commission their carpets. However, Americans are also less willing to travel to Afghanistan to source carpets than German buyers. About 70% of respondents source their carpets direct from producers, with the balance buying from wholesalers in the supplier country. Trade magazines and on-line sources are rated among the most common source of new carpet supplier contacts. Trade shows do not feature highly. Commissioning versus buying ready-made Willingness to travel to Afghanistan to source carpets There is considerable reluctance by American buyers to even entertain the idea of sourcing carpets directly from Afghanistan. In contrast, over 60% of buyers from Germany say that they are willing to travel to Afghanistan to buy carpets.

17 17 MARKET POSITIONING: BUYER PERCEPTIONS OF SUPPLIER COUNTRIES India and Nepal enjoy strong reputations among buyers, with Iran coming in third. However, there are substantial differences in perception between markets. Which country comes closest to being your ideal carpet supplier? (Percent of total respondents in each market) Nepal is rated very highly in Germany, but comes in 5 th out of 8 in the US. There is a substantial gap between Indias reputation and the second strongest, China, in the US. Afghanistan rates very low. This may in part be accounted for by limited buyer familiarity with Afghanistan (due to limited exports in comparison to other major producers) OTF discussion with buyers in the USA revealed limited knowledge of Afghan carpet production, other than traditional varieties from pre-conflict era.

18 18 MARKET POSITIONING: INDIAN CARPET CLUSTER Different cities have different areas of specialization. Bhadoi is the main carpet producing center, producing the widest range of carpets, with the largest production facilities. Kashmir For your exquisite silk carpets. 1 Intricate silk carpets. Jaipur* City of innovative styles. Medium and high qualities. Hand-knotted carpets. Panipat* For your contemporary fashion oriented tufted. Almost exclusively tufted carpets, both traditional and contemporary designs. Agra City of natural vegetable dyes for recreation of your antique pieces Majority of production is hand-knotted. Bhadoi* Great … for your cheaper yet fashion oriented hand-tufted, Indo-Tibetan and great hand- knotted of low & high qualities. A cluster in the truest sense, with over 80% of the towns activities somehow related to carpets. 1 * Research and site visits conducted by OTF in this production center (and surrounding area); June Estimate by cluster members. 1. Quotations from web site of the Carpet Export Promotion Council, 2. Some producers claimed to use actual Ghazni wool; others said it was unlikely to be from Ghazni.

19 19 MARKET POSITIONING: INDIAN CARPET VALUE CHAIN, TRANSFORMING TRADITIONAL DESIGN India does not restrict itself to traditionally Indian designs, but is quick to adopt and adapt designs from different parts of the world, creating interesting and potentially saleable products in the process. The top carpet is an older carpet – a classic Turkmen-Afghan carpet in traditional colors. Below is a new Turkmen-Afghan design, woven in India, with the use of more contemporary colors. 1 A traditionally Afghan motif (above), often used as a secondary gul on Suleman designs, is incorporated into a flat-weave kilim in more contemporary colors (right). 1. Quotation by US carpet wholesaler/retailer: [Afghanistan requires] more emphasis on contemporary designs and colors geared toward fashion. Red and blue are losing ground.

20 20 MARKET POSITIONING: AFGHANISTANS POTENTIAL TRAJECTORY, AVOIDING THE MOVE TO THE MIDDLE India is moving to the middle of the market, competing on a mix of design innovation & cost. Afghanistan is unlikely able to compete against India in these two areas in the near term. At the same time, China may be redrawing the cost axis of the productivity frontier. Excellent Cost Excellent Poor Differentiation Intense competition in the low-cost, low differentiation quadrant makes it unattractive India China Afghanistan 1. For example, according to the World Bank, Pakistan has ten times more road coverage than Afghanistan, and India has 30 times that number.

21 21 ACTION AND INVESTMENT PLAN: REQUIRED PRODUCTION TO SERVE NEW CUSTOMERS Investment efforts will focus on production for direct to end-market sales. The latter will require investing in a local cut and wash sector, as well as greater spending on design and marketing. Integrated production facility 5% volume growth NPV 1 of IPV cashflow$31.5 M Investment$48.2 M Price assumption 2 2 times Export value ($, millions) Share of total export value ($, millions) NPV discount rate of 20%. Total NPV includes all production; separate DPN NPV is only for cashflow of upgraded capacity. 2. Multiple of current export sale price to regional buyers. Distributed production network 10% volume conversion NPV 1 of upgraded DPN cashflow $45.6 M Investment$35.6 M Price assumption times TOTAL NPV 1 of industry cash flow$84.8 M Total investment$83.8 M

22 THANK YOU! Please visit for seminar presentations and papers ROB HENNING December 14, 2006

23 23 Annex: Complete 5 Step Process To be distributed as a handout

24 24 OTF GROUP 5 STEP STRATEGY FORMULATION PROCESS Situation Analysis Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Carpet Industry Goals Understand Carpet Buyers Needs Articulate Afghan Carpet Market Positioning Develop Action Guidelines –Export value estimated at >$140 M –Market: Increasingly competitive with top 5 buyers accounting for 70% of demand; prices moving downward –Domestic bottlenecks: Cutting and washing, access to finance, transportation, market knowledge and linkage –Differentiation: Important to build strong brand based on quality products –Grow industry export value at 11% annually; total export value of >$350 M by 2015 –Grow volume 5% –>80% of exports cut and washed in Afghanistan and sold direct to end-markets by 2015 –Develop new products –Increase productivity and raise wages –Increase local wool use from 33% to 65% –Brand identity: products aesthetics, quality of inputs, and value –Size matters more in the US; weave and price more in Germany –Afghanistan is well positioned with hand- knotted, naturally dyed carpets, such as Chob Rung carpets –Contemporary design market is an untapped opportunity –Afghanistan should pursue a differentiation-based strategy –This will require concerted focus on developing a quality product (design, inputs, value) and fostering reliable, high- trust relations with buyers –A strong brand will be required to support this differentiation; labor issues will likely be important –Afghanistan will likely pursue two production models: an Integrated Production Facility (IPF) and a Distributed Production Network (DPN) –Total NPV of 10 year industry cash flow $84.8 M; required investment of $83.8 M –Public financing will be required to support market access, design diversification, and maintenance of industry leadership institutions –Form and engage private-public industry leadership group, the Afghanistan Carpet Committee –Agree on a working schedule with Carpet Committee –Identify core industry members of groups as well as subject matter experts –Build sense of shared vision within industry –Initiate issue-specific working groups –Form a research plan based on initial hypotheses –Leverage OTF Insight to conduct international carpet market research –Use competitor findings to stimulate discussion around priority areas within industry group –Involve all subject matter experts in clarifying potential issues –Engage Afghanistan Carpet Committee in process of strategy vetting, buy-in and implementation –Lead a campaign to inform all stakeholders of strategy implication Analytical Agenda Institutional Process


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