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Monitoring in the technological age John Ramsey TICTAC Communications Ltd St. Georges, University of London London SW17 0RE.

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Presentation on theme: "Monitoring in the technological age John Ramsey TICTAC Communications Ltd St. Georges, University of London London SW17 0RE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Monitoring in the technological age John Ramsey TICTAC Communications Ltd St. Georges, University of London London SW17 0RE

2 Monitoring in the technological age Monitoring what ? l drugs l drug use l drug users Technological age ? l computing l communications TICTAC Communications Ltd.

3 Monitoring in the technological age l The internet l Websites *The Google effect l Blogs, social networking l Chat rooms l Information sources *EMCDDA *Wikipedia *Erowid *News feeds l Daily dose l YouTube l Sale of Legal highs l Mobile phones l Drug dealing l Databases TICTAC Communications Ltd.

4 Monitoring in the technological age Most of our information about drug use is from questionnaire based surveys l Surveys provide an important window on some types of drug use, but need to be complemented with targeted studies and statistical modelling if a more comprehensive picture is to be produced. l Sampling problems and response bias remain major problems for survey techniques l Sensitivity to language differences TICTAC Communications Ltd.

5 Monitoring in the technological age Indirect modelling Indirect modelling of the unknown population from the observable population is complicated to achieve and requires a proportion of the population of interest to be observable in some fashion Observe by analysis of :- l drugs *Police, Customs *Test purchasing, Amnesty bins l use of drugs (in biological samples) *Treatment of poisoning *Workplace drug testing in urine, oral fluid, hair l impairment *Field impairment tests *Admission to hospital TICTAC Communications Ltd.

6 Monitoring in the technological age Laboratory based analytical techniques l Mass spectrometry *LC/MS/MS, High resolution l Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Field drug detection technologies l Trace - Ion motility l Bulk – IR, Raman l Immunoassay ×Impairment testing TICTAC Communications Ltd. Analytical capabilities

7 Monitoring in the technological age Analysis of drugs l Law enforcement seizures l Police l Customs l Prisons l Test purchasing l Illegal drugs l Legal drugs – not illegal yet l Amnesty bin analysis l Drugs surrendered on entry to clubs TICTAC Communications Ltd.

8 Monitoring in the technological age TICTAC TICTAC collects legal & illegal drugs (at St. Georges University of London) to compile a database that is used by both Healthcare and Law & Order professionals 25,000 samples in secure storage www.tictac.org.uk

9 Monitoring in the technological age Analysis of biological samples l Treatment of poisoning l blood, urine l Treatment of addiction l urine l Workplace drug testing l urine, oral fluid, hair l Prison drug testing l urine, oral fluid l Law enforcement l driving – blood, urine l drug facilitated sexual assault – urine, blood TICTAC Communications Ltd.

10 Monitoring in the technological age TICTAC Communications Ltd. Oral fluid testing l collection more dignified than urine l detect drug closer to use l issues: l variability of collection devices variable volume l variability of oral fluids stimulation changes pH l cannabis detected from smoking l availability of identical second sample for donor l difficult to adulterate l low levels l different compounds detected (unchanged drug)

11 Monitoring in the technological age TICTAC Communications Ltd. Hair Testing l historical record (about 1cm per month) l detecting cannabis difficult l issues: l variable growth rates not all hairs in growth phase l external contamination l hair colour l short / long hair l low levels Natalie Portman as Sinéad O Connor

12 Monitoring in the technological age TICTAC Communications Ltd. Drug screening relies on Immunoassay Analytical procedure that uses antibodies raised in animals or cell cultures to detect or measure drugs l implemented as simple dipstick tests or used in highly automated laboratory apparatus l adding new drugs requires substantial investment in time and money l needs large market before this becomes viable l consequently new & emerging drugs are only detectable if they react with existing antibodies

13 Monitoring in the technological age TICTAC Communications Ltd. new compounds are used as drugs because they fall outside legislation the law catches up The driver for change

14 Monitoring in the technological age TICTAC Communications Ltd. Piperazines DBZP dibenzylpiperazine BZP 1-benzylpiperazine TFMPP m-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine mCPP m-chlorophenlypiperazine pMPP p-methoxyphenylpiperazine pFPP p-fluorophenlypiperazine Piperazine MBZP 1-methyl-4-benzylpiperazine

15 Monitoring in the technological age TICTAC Communications Ltd. Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry routinely used for l cocaine, heroin, amphetamine, ecstasy and many other drugs l general screening l new drugs requires acquisition of a reference sample Cost of machine £50,000 Consumables relatively low cost Run time about 30 mins per sample plus 30 mins for standard Sensitivity High

16 Monitoring in the technological age New high sensitivity equipment new possibilities – but at a high cost LC / MS / MS l Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry Atmospheric pressure ionisation high resolution mass spectrometry l DART l Direct inlet l Orbitrap l LC interface with very high resolution mass spectrometry TICTAC Communications Ltd.

17 Monitoring in the technological age LC / MS / MS tandem mass-spectrometry Cost of machine £200,000 Consumables relatively low cost Run time about 10 mins per sample plus 10 mins for standard Sensitivity Very high

18 Monitoring in the technological age Assessing illicit drugs in waste water Potential and limitations of a new monitoring approach l early days of the development of a new approach that appears to have considerable potential and may open up new possibilities for monitoring drug consumption trends l additional tool that complements and extends the possibilities of existing approaches to the fundamentally difficult problem of monitoring a complex, hidden and stigmatised behaviour TICTAC Communications Ltd.

19 Monitoring in the technological age Identification and measurement of illicit drugs and their metabolites in urban wastewater by liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry. Castiglioni S.,et al. Anal Chem 2006; 78: 8421–9. Analysis of cocaine and its principal metabolites in waste and surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Gheorghe A., et. al. Anal Bioanal Chem 2008; 391: 1309–19. Occurrence of psychoactive stimulatory drugs in wastewaters in north-eastern Spain. Huerta-Fontela M. et al. Sci Total Environ 2008; 397: 31–40. Multiresidue methods for the analysis of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and illicit drugs in surface water and wastewater by solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Kasprzyk-Hordern B. et. al. Anal Bioanal Chem 2008; 391: 1293–308. Fully automated determination in the low nanogram per liter level of different classes of drugs of abuse in sewage water by on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography–electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Postigo C., et. al. Anal Chem 2008; 80: 3123–34. Illicit drugs, a novel group of environmental contaminants. Zuccato E. et.al. Water Res 2008; 42: 961–8. Estimating community drug abuse by wastewater analysis. Zuccato E., et. al. Environ Health Persp 2008; 116: 1027–32. Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium. Nuijs A. L. N., et. al. Environ Pollut 2009; 157: 123–29. TICTAC Communications Ltd. Assessing illicit drugs in waste water

20 Monitoring in the technological age Assessing illicit drugs in waste water l Wastewater analysis is a promising tool to evaluate cocaine consumption at both local and national scale. This rapid and direct estimation of the prevalence of cocaine use in Belgium corresponds with socioepidemiological data. l However, the strategy needs to be refined further to allow a more exact calculation of cocaine consumption from concentrations of BE in wastewater. TICTAC Communications Ltd. 2009, Addiction, 104, 734–741

21 Monitoring in the technological age DART l new non-contact surface sampling technique for mass spectrometry at atmospheric pressure under ambient conditions l analyse gases, liquid, solids & materials on surfaces DART on Joel AccuTOF time-of-flight mass spectrometer Cost of machine £250,000 Consumables very low cost Run time about 1 min per sample Sensitivity Very high

22 Monitoring in the technological age DART

23 Orbitrap Thermo Scientific Exactive TM TICTAC Communications Ltd. 1.Exact mass measurements of organic compounds 2.General unknown screening atmospheric pressure ionisation high resolution, accurate mass measurements >10,000 at m/z 200 up to over 100,000 extracted ion chromatogram in very complex matrix high selectivity and sensitivity in full scan mode sample introduction by direct infusion or LC Potential to screen for compounds (even retrospectively) where we know the chemical structure but do not have a reference sample. e.g. cannabinoid receptor agonists Cost of machine £350,000 Consumables low cost Run time about 5 min per sample Sensitivity Very high

24 Monitoring in the technological age Spice l Purports to be a herbal mixture l Damiana l Wild Lettuce l Skullcap l Motherwort l Red Clover l Marshmallow l Blue Lotus l Baybean l Pink Lotus l Dwarf Skullcap l Indian Warrior l Lions Tail l Maconha Brava l White Lotus l Siberian Motherwart l Vanilla & Honey l Contains cannabinoid receptor agonists l Synthetic cannabis TICTAC Communications Ltd. JWH-018 HU-210CP47497 Spice is an exotic incense blend of the highest quality herbs and herbal extracts. Unwind your mind! The only herbal smoke that actually works! anytime, anyplace...(except when operating heavy machinery)

25 Monitoring in the technological age Access to specialist equipment to address the increasing number of new synthetic drugs NMR l Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy l 1 Hydrogen l 13 Carbon l 19 Fluorine TICTAC Communications Ltd.

26 Monitoring in the technological age TICTAC Communications Ltd. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) NMR (Bruker Avance 400 MHz) l identification of new unknown compounds l amphetamines, ecstasy, piperazines, beta keto derivatives l quantitation of drugs in absence of reference sample l drug comparisons l cocaine Cost of machine £200,000 Consumables moderate cost Run time 30 mins or more per sample Sensitivity very Low Requires specialist to read the results

27 Monitoring in the technological age 4-Fluoroamphetamine TICTAC Communications Ltd. NMR required to confirm the structure in the absence of a reference sample. 1H1H 19 F

28 Monitoring in the technological age Transportable equipment for field testing Bulk l Infra red spectroscopy l Xray l immunoassay Trace l Ion motility spectroscopy l immunoassay TICTAC Communications Ltd.

29 Monitoring in the technological age TICTAC Communications Ltd. Bulk identification ATR Spectral Library over 25,000 unique ATR spectra Hazmat ID CBRN weapons or hazards Tends to only identify major component of a mixture. e.g. impure cocaine identified as diluent (lactose), ketamine injection as water.

30 GHB GBL GHB BDO

31 Monitoring in the technological age TICTAC Communications Ltd. Trace detection l passive drug dogs l ion motility spectrometers l surfaces swabbed and analysed within 30 seconds *Hands *Phones *Cars *Premises

32 Monitoring in the technological age Portals used to detect metal, explosives, drugs l Metal detectors l Xray l Ion motility TICTAC Communications Ltd. Smiths - Bodyscan Braun – Conpass Shows concealed items hidden on or inside a persons body Drugs in the stomach

33 Monitoring in the technological age Detection of indoor cannabis cultivation l odour of cannabis l very high electricity consumption l criminal gangs, bypass the problem by wiring directly - and often dangerously - into the electricity mains l high heat output l fire is a serious risk - cannabis farms often discovered as a result of fires TICTAC Communications Ltd. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7412654.stm

34 Monitoring in the technological age Thermal imaging to detect indoor cannabis cultivation TICTAC Communications Ltd. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7412654.stm

35 Monitoring in the technological age Impairment testing In many situations it is more important to know if an individual is impaired than what is responsible for the impairment. l Driving l Workplace TICTAC Communications Ltd.

36 Monitoring in the technological age Preliminary Impairment tests TICTAC Communications Ltd. Finger to Nose Test Pupil size assessmentModified Romberg Balance Test Walk &Turn Test One Leg Stand EyeCheck ® digital pupillometer allegedly used by l Law enforcement agencies l employers to detect substance abuse by employees

37 Monitoring in the technological age British Crime Survey 2006 / 7 illegal drug use (England & Wales) Used in lifetime Used in last year Used in last month 16-24 44.7% 24.1% 14.3% 16-59 35.5% 10.0% 5.9% n = 28,784

38 Monitoring in the technological age Positivity rate for UK workplace drug tests 5 - 6% data set >12 years of analytical data >10m laboratory tests >700,000 samples


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