Presentation on theme: "Monitoring in the technological age"— Presentation transcript:
1Monitoring in the technological age John RamseyTICTAC Communications LtdSt. George’s, University of LondonLondonSW17 0RE
2Monitoring in the technological age Monitoring what ?drugsdrug usedrug usersTechnological age ?computingcommunications TICTAC Communications Ltd.
3The internet Mobile phones Websites The Google effect Blogs, social networkingChat roomsInformation sourcesEMCDDAWikipediaErowidNews feedsDaily doseYouTubeSale of “Legal highs”Mobile phonesDrug dealingDatabases TICTAC Communications Ltd.
4Most of our information about drug use is from questionnaire based surveys “Surveys provide an important window on some types of drug use, but need to be complemented with targeted studies and statistical modelling if a more comprehensive picture is to be produced.“Sampling problems and response bias remain major problems for survey techniquesSensitivity to language differences TICTAC Communications Ltd.
5Indirect modelling“Indirect modelling of the unknown population from the observable population is complicated to achieve and requires a proportion of the population of interest to be observable in some fashion”Observe by analysis of :-drugsPolice, CustomsTest purchasing, Amnesty binsuse of drugs (in biological samples)Treatment of poisoningWorkplace drug testing in urine, oral fluid, hairimpairmentField impairment testsAdmission to hospital TICTAC Communications Ltd.
6Analytical capabilities Laboratory based analytical techniquesMass spectrometryLC/MS/MS, High resolutionNuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)Field drug detection technologiesTrace - Ion motilityBulk – IR, RamanImmunoassayImpairment testing TICTAC Communications Ltd.
7Analysis of drugs Law enforcement seizures Test purchasing PoliceCustomsPrisonsTest purchasingIllegal drugsLegal drugs – “not illegal yet”Amnesty bin analysisDrugs surrendered on entry to clubs TICTAC Communications Ltd.
825,000 samples in secure storage TICTAC25,000 samples in secure storageTICTAC collects legal & illegal drugs (at St. George’s University of London) to compile a database that is used by both Healthcare and Law & Order professionals
9Analysis of biological samples Treatment of poisoningblood, urineTreatment of addictionurineWorkplace drug testingurine, oral fluid, hairPrison drug testingurine, oral fluidLaw enforcementdriving – blood, urinedrug facilitated sexual assault – urine, blood TICTAC Communications Ltd.
10Oral fluid testing collection more ‘dignified’ than urine detect drug closer to useissues:variability of collection devicesvariable volumevariability of oral fluidsstimulation changes pHcannabis detected from smokingavailability of identical second sample for donordifficult to adulteratelow levelsdifferent compounds detected (unchanged drug) TICTAC Communications Ltd.
11Hair Testing historical record (about 1cm per month) detecting cannabis difficultissues:variable growth ratesnot all hairs in growth phaseexternal contaminationhair colourshort / long hairlow levelsNatalie Portmanas Sinéad O Connor TICTAC Communications Ltd.
12Drug screening relies on Immunoassay Analytical procedure that uses antibodies raised in animals or cell cultures to detect or measure drugsimplemented as simple dipstick tests or used in highly automated laboratory apparatusadding new drugs requires substantial investment in time and moneyneeds large market before this becomes viableconsequently new & emerging drugs are only detectable if they react with existing antibodies TICTAC Communications Ltd.
13new compounds are used as drugs because they fall outside legislation The driver for changenew compounds are used as drugs because they fall outside legislationthe law catches up TICTAC Communications Ltd.
15Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry routinely used forcocaine, heroin, amphetamine, ‘ecstasy’ and many other drugsgeneral screeningnew drugs requires acquisition of a reference sampleCost of machine £50,000Consumables relatively low costRun time about 30 mins per sampleplus 30 mins for standardSensitivity High TICTAC Communications Ltd.
16New high sensitivity equipment new possibilities – but at a high cost LC / MS / MSLiquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometryAtmospheric pressure ionisation high resolution mass spectrometryDARTDirect inletOrbitrapLC interface with very high resolution mass spectrometry TICTAC Communications Ltd.
17tandem mass-spectrometry LC / MS / MSCost of machine £200,000Consumables relatively low costRun time about 10 mins per sampleplus 10 mins for standardSensitivity Very hightandem mass-spectrometry
18Assessing illicit drugs in waste water Potential and limitations of a new monitoring approachearly days of the development of a new approach that appears to have considerable potential and may open up new possibilities for monitoring drug consumption trendsadditional tool that complements and extends the possibilities of existing approaches to the fundamentally difficult problem of monitoring a complex, hidden and stigmatised behaviour TICTAC Communications Ltd.
19Assessing illicit drugs in waste water Identification and measurement of illicit drugs and their metabolites in urban wastewater by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Castiglioni S.,et al. Anal Chem 2006; 78: 8421–9. Analysis of cocaine and its principal metabolites in waste and surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Gheorghe A., et. al. Anal Bioanal Chem 2008; 391: 1309–19. Occurrence of psychoactive stimulatory drugs in wastewaters in north-eastern Spain. Huerta-Fontela M. et al. Sci Total Environ 2008; 397: 31–40. Multiresidue methods for the analysis of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and illicit drugs in surface water and wastewater by solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Kasprzyk-Hordern B. et. al. Anal Bioanal Chem 2008; 391: 1293–308. Fully automated determination in the low nanogram per liter level of different classes of drugs of abuse in sewage water by on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography–electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Postigo C., et. al . Anal Chem 2008; 80: 3123–34. Illicit drugs, a novel group of environmental contaminants. Zuccato E. et.al. Water Res 2008; 42: 961–8. Estimating community drug abuse by wastewater analysis. Zuccato E., et. al. Environ Health Persp 2008; 116: 1027–32. Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium. Nuijs A. L. N., et. al. Environ Pollut 2009; 157: 123–29. TICTAC Communications Ltd.
20Assessing illicit drugs in waste water 2009, Addiction, 104, 734–741Wastewater analysis is a promising tool to evaluate cocaine consumption at both local and national scale. This rapid and direct estimation of the prevalence of cocaine use in Belgium corresponds with socioepidemiological data.However, the strategy needs to be refined further to allow a more exact calculation of cocaine consumption from concentrations of BE in wastewater. TICTAC Communications Ltd.
21 time-of-flight mass spectrometer DART™new non-contact surface sampling technique for mass spectrometry at atmospheric pressure under ambient conditionsanalyse gases, liquid, solids & materials on surfacesDART on Joel AccuTOFCost of machine £250,000Consumables very low costRun time about 1 min per sampleSensitivity Very high time-of-flight mass spectrometer
23Orbitrap Thermo Scientific Exactive TM Cost of machine £350,000Consumables low costRun time about 5 min per sampleSensitivity Very highOrbitrap Thermo Scientific Exactive TMExact mass measurements of organic compoundsGeneral unknown screeningatmospheric pressure ionisationhigh resolution, accurate mass measurements >10,000 at m/z 200 up to over 100,000extracted ion chromatogram in very complex matrixhigh selectivity and sensitivity in full scan modesample introduction by direct infusion or LCPotential to screen for compounds (even retrospectively) where we know the chemical structure but do not have a reference sample.e.g. cannabinoid receptor agonists TICTAC Communications Ltd.
24Spice Purports to be a herbal mixture DamianaWild LettuceSkullcapMotherwortRed CloverMarshmallowBlue LotusBaybeanPink LotusDwarf SkullcapIndian WarriorLion’s TailMaconha BravaWhite LotusSiberian MotherwartVanilla & HoneyContains cannabinoid receptor agonistsSynthetic cannabis“Spice is an exotic incense blend of the highest quality herbs and herbal extracts .Unwind your mind! The only herbal smoke that actually works! anytime, anyplace...(except when operating heavy machinery)”JWH-018HU-210CP47497 TICTAC Communications Ltd.
25Access to specialist equipment to address the increasing number of new synthetic drugs NMRNuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy1 Hydrogen13 Carbon19 Fluorine TICTAC Communications Ltd.
26Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) NMR (Bruker Avance 400 MHz)identification of new unknown compoundsamphetamines, ‘ecstasy’, piperazines, beta keto derivativesquantitation of drugs in absence of reference sampledrug comparisonscocaineCost of machine £200,000Consumables moderate costRun time 30 mins or more per sampleSensitivity very LowRequires specialist to read the results TICTAC Communications Ltd.
274-Fluoroamphetamine 1H 19F NMR required to confirm the structure in the absence of a reference sample.1H19F TICTAC Communications Ltd.
28Transportable equipment for field testing BulkInfra red spectroscopyXrayimmunoassayTraceIon motility spectroscopy TICTAC Communications Ltd.
29Bulk identification Hazmat ID CBRN weapons or hazards Tends to only identify majorcomponent of a mixture.e.g. impure cocaine identified asdiluent (lactose), ketamine injectionas water.ATR Spectral Library over 25,000 unique ATR spectra TICTAC Communications Ltd.
31Trace detection passive drug dogs ion motility spectrometers surfaces swabbed and analysed within 30 secondsHandsPhonesCarsPremises TICTAC Communications Ltd.
32Portals used to detect metal, explosives, drugs Metal detectorsXrayIon motilityDrugs in the stomachBraun – ConpassShows concealed items hidden on or inside a persons bodySmiths - Bodyscan TICTAC Communications Ltd.
33Detection of indoor cannabis cultivation odour of cannabisvery high electricity consumptioncriminal gangs, bypass the problem by wiring directly - and often dangerously - into the electricity mainshigh heat outputfire is a serious risk - cannabis farms often discovered as a result of fires TICTAC Communications Ltd.
35Impairment testingIn many situations it is more important to know if an individual is impaired than what is responsible for the impairment.DrivingWorkplace TICTAC Communications Ltd.
36Preliminary Impairment tests Pupil size assessmentModified Romberg Balance TestWalk &Turn TestOne Leg StandFinger to Nose TestEyeCheck®digital pupillometerallegedly used byLaw enforcement agenciesemployers to detect substance abuse by employees TICTAC Communications Ltd.
37British Crime Survey 2006 / 7 illegal drug use (England & Wales) 16-2444.7%24.1%14.3%16-5935.5%10.0%5.9%Used in lifetimeUsed in last yearUsed in last monthn = 28,784
38Positivity rate for UK workplace drug tests %data set>12 years of analytical data>10m laboratory tests>700,000 samples