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Harmonization of GCC Banking Regulations Tony Maalouli Managing Director ProConsult Advocates & Legal Consultants.

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Presentation on theme: "Harmonization of GCC Banking Regulations Tony Maalouli Managing Director ProConsult Advocates & Legal Consultants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Harmonization of GCC Banking Regulations Tony Maalouli Managing Director ProConsult Advocates & Legal Consultants

2 GCC Economic Agreement 1981 GCC Economic Agreement1981 GCC Economic Agreement Main Objectives: Regional Cooperation and IntegrationMain Objectives: Regional Cooperation and Integration Specific Objectives: Achieve a Common MarketSpecific Objectives: Achieve a Common Market First Two Decades: Successfully Developing Economic TiesFirst Two Decades: Successfully Developing Economic Ties 2001 New GCC Economic Agreement2001 New GCC Economic Agreement

3 Economic and Financial Integration Trade: Customs Union and International Economic RelationsTrade: Customs Union and International Economic Relations Article One provided for The Customs Union: Article One provided for The Customs Union: Trade between the GCC member States will be conducted within the framework of a customs union Article Two provided for The International Economic Relations: Article Two provided for The International Economic Relations: To secure better terms and more favorable conditions in their international economic relationships, Member States shall draw their policies and conduct economic relations in a collective fashion in dealing with other countries, blocs and regional groupings, as well as other regional and international organizations

4 Economic and Financial Integration Creation of GCC Common MarketCreation of GCC Common Market Article Three provided that: Article Three provided that: GCC natural and legal citizens shall be accorded, in any Member State, the same treatment accorded to its own citizens, without differentiation or discrimination, in all economic activities, including capital movement

5 Economic and Financial Integration Economic and Monetary UnionEconomic and Monetary Union Article Four provided that: Article Four provided that: Member States shall undertake, according to a specified timetable, to achieve the requirements of Economic and Monetary Union, which include the achievement of a high level of harmonization between Member States in all economic policies, especially fiscal and monetary policies, banking legislation Article Five further elaborates that: Article Five further elaborates that: Members states shall provide an investment climate characterized by transparency and stability, and take the following steps: 1. Unify all their investment-related laws and regulations. 2. Accord national treatment to all investments owned by GCC natural and legal citizens. 3. Integrate financial markets in Member States, and unify all related legislation and policies.

6 Achievements in the Field of Integration of Banking Regulations Achievement of Economic Nationalization and Equality between GCC CitizensAchievement of Economic Nationalization and Equality between GCC Citizens Permitting the Gulf International Bank to open its branches in the GCC States in accordance with the laws and regulations prevailing in the host Member State. Permitting the Gulf International Bank to open its branches in the GCC States in accordance with the laws and regulations prevailing in the host Member State. Allowing the national banks of the GCC States to open branches in other Member States in accordance with specific regulations. Allowing the national banks of the GCC States to open branches in other Member States in accordance with specific regulations. Approximation and Unification of Procedures and RegulationsApproximation and Unification of Procedures and Regulations

7 Achievements in the Field of Integration of Banking Regulations Monetary UnionMonetary Union Approving the American Dollar as the common peg for the currencies of the GCC States. Approving the American Dollar as the common peg for the currencies of the GCC States. Assigning the Committee of Governors with the task of exploring the economic benchmarks and standards related to the financial and monetary stability and harmonising those benchmarks and standards to make the Monetary Union successful. Assigning the Committee of Governors with the task of exploring the economic benchmarks and standards related to the financial and monetary stability and harmonising those benchmarks and standards to make the Monetary Union successful. Two major setbacks in 2007 (Kuwait and Oman)Two major setbacks in 2007 (Kuwait and Oman)

8 Achievements in the Field of Integration of Banking Regulations Launch of the GCC Common MarketLaunch of the GCC Common Market Model Laws and Documents ApprovedModel Laws and Documents Approved Monthly Statement of Assets and Liabilities 5 th Meeting of the Governors of Monetary Institutions & Central Banks Muscat, 6-7 May 1986 For guidance Law on the Centralization of Risks 7 th Meeting of the Committee of Governors of Monetary Institutions &Central Banks Abu Dhabi January 1986 For guidance Law on Adequacy of Capital, Asset Risks, and the Law on Credit Concentrations in the GCC Banks Committee of Governors of Monetary Institutions and Central Banks Abu Dhabi, 10 April 1993 For guidance

9 Future Plans GMC and GCB Establishment of the Gulf Monetary Council and Gulf Central BankEstablishment of the Gulf Monetary Council and Gulf Central Bank A decision to establish a Gulf monetary council in preparation for the establishment of a joint central bank and later a single Gulf currency was agreed upon in 2006 by Central Bank Governors. Operations for the proposed council would begin in A decision to establish a Gulf monetary council in preparation for the establishment of a joint central bank and later a single Gulf currency was agreed upon in 2006 by Central Bank Governors. Operations for the proposed council would begin in The GMC ObjectivesThe GMC Objectives preparation for the realization of Monetary Union. preparation for the realization of Monetary Union. Preparation for the changeover to the single currency, and in particular for the establishment of the GCB and its analytical and operational capabilities. Preparation for the changeover to the single currency, and in particular for the establishment of the GCB and its analytical and operational capabilities.

10 Future Plans GMC and GCB The GCB ObjectivesThe GCB Objectives The primary objective of the GCB would be to ensure price stability in the single currency area. The primary objective of the GCB would be to ensure price stability in the single currency area. Also, contribute to the achievement of the common objectives as laid down in the current GCC Charter and related agreements. Also, contribute to the achievement of the common objectives as laid down in the current GCC Charter and related agreements. The GCB TasksThe GCB Tasks define the monetary and exchange rate policy of the single currency area. define the monetary and exchange rate policy of the single currency area. ensure the consistent implementation of the monetary and exchange rate policy of the single currency area. ensure the consistent implementation of the monetary and exchange rate policy of the single currency area. hold, manage and control the foreign reserves of the single currency area. hold, manage and control the foreign reserves of the single currency area. issue banknotes and coins denominated in the single currency. issue banknotes and coins denominated in the single currency. promote the smooth operation of the market infrastructure for the clearing and settlement of payments and securities transactions within the single currency area. promote the smooth operation of the market infrastructure for the clearing and settlement of payments and securities transactions within the single currency area. The GCB would also exercise specific powers in the area of prudential supervision and financial stability. The GCB would also exercise specific powers in the area of prudential supervision and financial stability. Advisory role to GCC and national governments on draft legislation. Advisory role to GCC and national governments on draft legislation.

11 Future Plans GMC and GCB The GCB Status: Independence, accountability and transparencyThe GCB Status: Independence, accountability and transparency Independent from governments and other bodies. Independent from governments and other bodies. Accountable to GCC political bodies. Accountable to GCC political bodies. Different publications to explain policies. Different publications to explain policies. Why the GCB?Why the GCB? The power to formulate monetary policy in a monetary union is transferred to the supranational level. The power to formulate monetary policy in a monetary union is transferred to the supranational level. This implies centralized decision-making (not merely coordination of national policies). This implies centralized decision-making (not merely coordination of national policies).

12 Assessment Basic Elements of Economic Integration have progressed at a brisk rateBasic Elements of Economic Integration have progressed at a brisk rate Actual Implementation on the national levels of Model and Key Laws still lagsActual Implementation on the national levels of Model and Key Laws still lags Public Awareness needs to increasePublic Awareness needs to increase A Major Empowerment of Centralized GCC Institutions is also warrantedA Major Empowerment of Centralized GCC Institutions is also warranted The Number of Banks operating across GCC countries is still very limitedThe Number of Banks operating across GCC countries is still very limited

13 Lessons to be Learned Review of Banking Regulations in light of New International Trends:Review of Banking Regulations in light of New International Trends: modernisation of banking laws and regulationsmodernisation of banking laws and regulations harmonisation of such laws and regulationsharmonisation of such laws and regulations adoption of similar supervisory standards in the GCC countriesadoption of similar supervisory standards in the GCC countries close cooperation among the GCC central banks and other supervisory authoritiesclose cooperation among the GCC central banks and other supervisory authorities The cross-country experience of International InstitutionsThe cross-country experience of International Institutions DeregulationDeregulation GCC Approach to Basel IIGCC Approach to Basel II Banking supervision for Banks with cross-border activities: Consolidated SupervisionBanking supervision for Banks with cross-border activities: Consolidated Supervision The Basle Committees Trend: Four Minimum StandardsThe Basle Committees Trend: Four Minimum Standards European Union Trend: home country supervision and single license modelEuropean Union Trend: home country supervision and single license model

14 Hopeful Note We hope that the success of the GCC countries' in achieving a high degree of financial integration among their countries could also provide the example for greater financial and economic integration for the benefit of the Arab region as a whole.We hope that the success of the GCC countries' in achieving a high degree of financial integration among their countries could also provide the example for greater financial and economic integration for the benefit of the Arab region as a whole.


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