Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. What are incentives? zIncentive programs arent automatic performance generators... they can even backfire and be counterproductive when they dont work out in the fashion intended (Ron Zemke & Dick Schaaf - The Service Edge) zIncentives are rewards with some strings attached, commonly known as the carrot and stick approach zincentive: n. 1. A motivating influence, stimulus, 2. a. an additional payment made to employees as a means of increasing production b. (as modifier): an incentive scheme. adj. 3. serving to incite to action
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Recognition zThe motivational power in recognition lies mainly in its ability to appeal to an employees sense of pride... typical safety examples include: Pat on the back Praise for a job well done Coffee with the boss of CEO Or any other initiative which may be deemed to be worthy or motivational
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Key recognition factors zDifferent people like to be recognized differently zDont assume you know what will turn peoples crank. What may be a hot button for you may not be for someone else zOne persons plaque or trophy proudly displayed in the rec. room may be another persons basement junk
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. How to recognize? The possibilities are endless zSmall gifts zPlaques zMemos zPublic speeches zPep talk You can create as many opportunities, artificial or otherwise, which you feel may be a motivating exercise
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Incentives... Ripe with Controversy zThe tacit assumption behind safety contests is that workers are primarily responsible for accidents through their carelessness, accident proneness or bad attitudes, and that they can therefore stop accidents from happening merely by resolving to be more careful, to obey their supervisors or to have a positive attitude towards safety... (Dr. Robert Sass: The Value of Safety Contests, 1984)
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Westray 1992 John T. Ryan Trophy winner zBased on injury statistics only (frequency or recordable injuries) zFrequency not a good indicator of risk zTells you nothing about risk management zToo easy to cook the books zOnly about records
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Behavioral Safety & Incentives/Recognition zToken economies based on injury free periods, eligible for gifts and prizes zAt risk or unsafe behavior (unsafe acts) defined, documented, tracked and subject to feedback zPositive reinforcement and positive for desired behavior - negative behavior needs corrective action, discipline or feedback to correct/change behavior to desired behavior
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Alfie Kohn Punished by Rewards zClearly, punishments are harsher and more overt... but rewards simply control through seduction rather than by force. In the final analysis, they are not one bit less controlling since, like punishments, they are typically used to induce or pressure people to do things they would not freely do - or rather, things that the controller believes they would not freely do
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Kohn... continued zPeoples interest in doing what they are doing typically declines when they are rewarded for doing it... scores of other studies confirmed this conclusion zConsider the countries typically cited as competitors of the United States. Japan and Germany... rarely use incentives and other behaviorist tactics to induce people to do a better job
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Peter R. Scoltes The Team Handbook zThe greatest management conceit is that we can motivate people. We cant. Motivation is there, inside people... the greatest managerial cynicism is that workers are withholding a certain amount of effort that must be bribed from them by means of various incentives, rewards, contests or merit pay programs... the greatest waste of managerial time is spent trying to manipulate peoples minds and infuse motivation into them
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Douglas McGregor The Human Side of the Enterprise zIndividual incentive plans provide a good example of an attempt to control behavior The practical logic of incentives is that people want money, and that they will work harder to get it zIncentive plans do not take account of several other well-demonstrated characteristics of behavior in the business setting...
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Accident Causes How Does This Relate to Your Incentive or Recognition Approaches zUnsafe act (worker behavior) vs Unsafe condition of the work environment zTotal safety management systems approach zTotal Quality Management approach zDomino effect zRoot cause analysis zInternal Responsibility System (Canadian)
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. 1974 Ham Royal Commission zThe Commission believes that emphasis on unsafe conditions and unsafe acts falsely dichotomizes and generally oversimplifies the organic circumstances out of which accidents arise zThe apparently common view that the great majority of accidents are the direct result of nothing more than unsafe acts or unsafe conditions is, in the Commissions opinion, too restricted a view of the human problem of accidental injuries
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Section 11 (c) Federal US OSHA Act zEmployees cant be discriminated against for exercising any right under the act. Since employees have the right to report that they have been hurt on the job, and games which discourage the exercise of that right may be considered discriminatory
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. E. Scott Geller The Psychology of Safety zSafety incentive programs should focus on the process rather than the outcomes zReward people for what they do - risk reducing behaviors or correct, safe behaviors
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. F. David Pierce Total Quality for Safety & Health Professionals zHistorically we have used safety awards as carrots for worker safety. Most times these focus on workers staying injury free, not on worker safety participation. Its for these reasons that these injury-free based award programs have mixed results zParticipation based awards are different. When used, they can change the perceptions destructive to safety award programs. That is, they bring a halt to the reward systems that depend on not having injuries and instead focus on involvement
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Cohen & Smith NIOH&S zCohn & Smiths study indicated that among industry leaders in accident free hours, use of monetary incentives was played down, and management frequently expressed the opinion that safety contests, give-away prizes and once per year dinners simply did not work
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Clash of Ideas Incentives Generate Heated Debate zAlfie Kohn: Rewards are not actually solutions at all. They are gimmicks, shortcuts, quick fixes that mask problems and ignore reason. Giving people rewards is an inherently objectionable way of reaching our goals by virtue of its status as a means of controlling others. What rewards and punishments do is induce compliance. zAlfie Kohn/W.Edwards Deming/Stephen R. Covey: Common safety tools such as incentives, recognition, praise and penalties do more harm than good in the long run because employees see these tactics are a means of controlling behavior. Feeling controlled, an employees own inner motivation suffers
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Advice from Behaviorists E. Scott Geller... The Psychology of Safety zThe intent must not be to control people, but to help them control their own behavior for the safety of themselves and others. This is why the terms such as behavior modification, discipline and enforcement are inappropriate. They carry the connotation of outside control. The bottom line is that behavior is motivated by consequences that are obvious and immediate
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Behavior-Based Safety vs Hierarchy of Control of Hazards Behavior-Based Safety 1. The belief that worker behavior is the precursor to safety or injury 2. Implementation must be achieved through training (lots!) 3. High participation is critical for success 4. Management commitment to the process is essential 5. Behavior is objective and can be observed 6. Unsafe or at-risk behavior can be objectively measured 7. Improving safe behavior and minimizing at-risk behaviors reduces injuries
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Behavior-Based Approaches to Safety Incentive and Recognition Options 1. Behaviors required to achieve a safety award should be specified and perceived as achievable by participants 2. Everyone who meets the behavioral criteria should be rewarded 3. Its better for many participants to receive small awards than for one person to receive a big award 4. Rewards should be displayed and represent safety achievement (ie: mugs, hats, shirts, sweaters or jackets with a safety message) 5. Contests should not reward one group at the expense of another 6. Groups should not be penalized or lose their rewards for failure by an individual 7. Progress toward achieving a safety award should be systematically monitored and publicly posted for all participants
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Hierarchy of Health & Safety Controls 1. Elimination or substitution 2. Engineering controls 3. Warnings 4. Training and Procedures/Administrative controls 5. Personal Protective Equipment National Safety Council & UAW Paper on A Union Critique of Behavior Safety
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Labor Complaints about Behavior- Based safety zIgnores hierarchy of risk controls zNot a risk management approach zPuts responsibility of worker zCreates climate of fear zRules based approach only zTakes employer and regulator off the hook zResearch based on false and questionable logic Unsafe Act VS Unsafe Condition
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Health & Safety Process Model Identification Evaluation Control Data Analysis Claims assessment Surveys & Questionnaires Interviews Worker Complaints Government Regulations Inspections/Audits Risk Assessment Hazard Analysis Select Controls based on Hierarchy UAW Safety Model
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Behavior-Based Safety Process Model Identify criticalworker behaviors Conduct periodic inspections to monitor worker behavior Implement positive and negative reinforcement
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Safety Incentive, Recognition and Award Systems Deciding if the approach is right for you & Which type of system meets your needs
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Safety Incentives and Recognition Do you presently use them in your business? If so why? If not why not? Reference the definitions: Incentives: Rewards: Recognition: Are they used in any other aspect of your business? If so, how?
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. Safety Incentives and Recognition Are they right for your business? Conduct perception survey - what do people think? Consult individual workers & management - what do they really think? Develop task teams to brainstorm issue Evaluate existing corporate culture of your business Look at existing safety policies and practices... do they compliment a culture of recognition for outstanding achievement? Are injury rates still the main measure of your safety performance? Are there other opportunities to recognize outstanding safety performance?
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. The Steps for the development of a safety incentive /recognition system 1. Establish the rationale, logic and foundation for the system and its use in your business Will your system be based on injury free periods only? Will the system include select safety & accident prevention activities? (is so, what are they?) Will the system be available to both management and workers Will the system be structured so as to avoid under-reporting or injuries? Will the system be based on select safety targets, goals and objectives Can workers and management set their own safety objectives?
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. 2. Identify Resources at your Disposal zWill there be a budget for identified rewards or financial remuneration? zVerbal recognition only? zWill the rewards be tied to other forms of compensation, ie: executive compensation; merit increases; profit sharing; workers compensation rebates? z Are other types of rewards, other than financial, being considered? z Will resources be available to individuals, teams, to assist in achieving these reward/recognition targets? z Will the system be management, individual or team driven?
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. 3. Who is going to drive the process? LEADERSHIP zWho do you need to get on side to help market your system? (management-union-workers) zHow will this leadership role be identified? zSomeone with credibility in your business needs to play a critical role zThis leader will need to sell others on the positive benefits of an achievement-based safety culture zThis leader will have to stand firm to the principles and beliefs of an achievement-based safety culture when naysayers look to find fault with the process
Copywrite - Creative Business Solutions Inc. 4. Test Marketing... taking the pulse of your people zIs the process working? (how do you know?) zIs there a direct cause and effect relationship between your incentive and the safety performance you want/desire? zIs risk being reduced? zDo people believe in the process? zDoes the system need fine tuning? zIs the process going stale- if so, what are you doing about it? zDoes the system help foster trust, honest communication, effective safety performance and total safety management objectives? If so - good! If not, why not?