Presentation on theme: "Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination"— Presentation transcript:
1 Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudicePrepared by S. Saterfield, Whitley& Kite, (2006) The Psychogy of Prejudice and Discrimination
2 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Research suggest that prejudice continues to be alive and well in the United States, however only in a subtle rather than overt form.What evidence support this statement?
3 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice 2001 Gallup poll:64% White respondents –very satisfied or somewhat satisfied with way Blacks treated in society.64% White respondents—replied the same when asked about Hispanics.Implications of research is that prejudice has decreased.
4 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Others Studies indicate that stereotypes become less negative over time.Several studies indicate changes in attitudes of the general population, for exampleBeliefs about the social roles of women has become less stereotyped between 1970 and 1995Attitudes towards lesbians and gay men had become less negative between 1973 and 1996.But is America Truly becoming less prejudiced?.
5 Bogus Pipeline Research: Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of PrejudiceBogus Pipeline Research:Assessment of behavior also indicate that prejudice continues.64% White39% Blacks45% HispanicsRespondents said they were satisfied with the way Blacks and Hispanics were treated as indicated in a Gallup Poll
6 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Is prejudice in this country becoming more indirect and subtle compared to the overt and blatant prejudice of the past?Can positive stereotypes as well as negative stereotype reflect a prejudiced mind-set? EEOC report
7 Day-to-day experience of women and members of minority groups Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of PrejudiceBogus Pipeline Research: participants answered questions while their physiological responses are measured by what they believe to be an effective lie detectorPhysiological and implicit cognition measures of prejudice: self-reported data indicate low levels of prejudice nonetheless exhibiting physiological responses indicating negative emotionsDay-to-day experience of women and members of minority groups
8 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice Women and African Americans Reporting Observed Sexist or Racist Behavior -2 weekType of BehaviorSEXIST BEHAVIORS:Gender-role stereotypingDemeaning commentsSexual ObjectificationRACIST BEHAVIORS:Nonverbal behaviorVerbal expressionsBad serviceInterpersonal offenseExamplesExpressions of a double standard for men and womenReferring to a woman as “bitch” or “chick”Staring at breasts, unwanted touchesHostile stares, being watched closely in storesRacial slurs, prejudiced jokesWhites who arrived later seated first in restaurantRude behavior, avoiding contact% Reporting36%31%25%24%18%15%
9 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice Why is there a contradiction between people’s non-prejudiced responses to questions about race, gender, and sexual orientation and their prejudiced everyday behavior?
10 But Only Bad People Are Prejudiced....... Two social issues- Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of PrejudiceBut Only Bad People Are PrejudicedTwo social issues-Change in American racial attitudes since World War IIJim Crow Racism
11 Affect of world events on American racial attitudes Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of PrejudiceAffect of world events on American racial attitudesBefore World War II prejudice by the dominate group against members of other groups was the social norm. Refer to asJIM CROW RACISM
12 JIM CROW RACISM Whites were inherently superior to other races Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of PrejudiceJIM CROW RACISMWhites were inherently superior to otherracesKeeping members of minority groups at adistance through racial segregation (More)Use of laws and power of government to establish racial segregated school system and other forms of discrimination (examples of Jim Crow Laws)Restriction of voting rights California had more Jim Crow laws enacted then any other state.
13 WORLD WAR II Beginning of change in racial beliefs and attitudes Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of PrejudiceWORLD WAR IIBeginning of change in racial beliefsand attitudesU.S. government portrayed Naziracist as dangerous and un-AmericanU.S. proclamation of Nazi racism lead to a look at paradoxes in our own societyAmerican values changed to racial prejudice was no longer acceptable
14 Within the two decades following WW II legislation was proposed Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of PrejudiceWORLD WAR IIWithin the two decades following WW II legislation was proposedDesegregating armed forcesVoting rights act passedEqual employment opportunity
15 Made segregated schools illegal Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of PrejudiceAnti-communist Cold WarHow could the U.S. criticize communist for violating civil liberties of their citizens while not granting full equality to all U.S. citizens.Racial equality established as a social norm in 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown v, Board of educationMade segregated schools illegal
16 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice Implicit prejudiceNegative stereotypes still exist and are absorbed in the negative emotions associated with those stereotypesIndividuals are not aware of having themEffect people’s emotional responses to and behavior towards minority groups
17 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice Implicit prejudicePrejudices that can be assess through implicit cognition and some behavioral measures which people are not aware of having.Learned through socializationThe nature of prejudice has changed from being “hot, close and direct” to being more “cool, distant and indirect”.
18 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice Racism changed from being normal to being bad and racist began to be seen as bad people.Can behaviors change from a cultural legacy of 400 years of racism in only a few decades?
19 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Theories of Contemporary Prejudice Three Propositions:Genuine change in American’s social norms since WW II, belief in the principle of equality for all peopleNot everyone has accepted this norm to the same degreeEven those people who have not yet fully accepted the norm are motivated to act in non-prejudiced ways
20 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Theories of Contemporary Prejudice Dominant social groups who hold contemporary prejudices express those prejudices in ways that can be justified on unprejudiced grounds.Employ psychological defense mechanism to rationalize and justify their prejudice behavior.
21 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Theories of Contemporary Prejudice People will express those prejudices in ways that can be justified on unprejudiced groundsPeople will have a genuine acceptance of the principle of equality and rejection of traditional prejudice with effects of old-fashioned prejudices that has been learned while growing up.
22 Four Theories of Contemporary Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Theories of Contemporary PrejudiceFour Theories of Contemporary PrejudiceModern-Symbolic PrejudiceSubtle PrejudiceAversive PrejudiceRacial Ambivalence
23 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Symbolic racism: a set of beliefs about Black people as an abstract group (anonymous they—”If they would only...) rather than as an individuals. Can be applied to any minority social group.Beliefs are expressed behaviorally as ACTS that are justified on a nonracial basis but that operate to maintain the racial status quoWhich leads to discrimination
24 Old-fashioned Racism: Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic PrejudiceOld-fashioned Racism:Based on belief in the biological inferiority of Black people and the attendant stereotypesLow intelligenceLazinessExclusion from certain jobs and segregated housing and social clubs:Legalized, formal discrimination in the form of racially separated schools and denial of voting rights
25 Difference between old-fashioned and contemporize racism— Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic PrejudiceDifference between old-fashioned and contemporize racism—-old fashioned is based on belief in the biological inferiority of Black people and the attendant stereotypes of low intelligence.-symbolic racism is not link directly to race, linked indirectly to race through political and social issues.Most members of the dominant social group do not see symbolic racist beliefs as prejudice
26 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Symbolic racism was changed to modern racism to emphasize the contemporary, post civil-rights–movement new ideology or belief systemsSome researchers have give this new contemporary form of prejudice a different name: racial resentment and laissez-faire racism
27 Characteristics of Modern-Symbolic prejudice- Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic PrejudiceCharacteristics of Modern-Symbolic prejudice-Racial prejudice and discrimination no longer existBlack-white differences in economic outcomes result from Black people’s lack of motivation to work hard enough to get what they wantBlack people are unwilling to work to get what they want, their continuing anger over inequality is unjustifiedRather than working for the ahead, Black people seek special favorsRelative to White people, Black people have been getting more than they deserve economically.-\
28 Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic PrejudicePsychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic PrejudiceSocialization (learning from childhood)Egalitarianism—(value system based in belief that all people are equal and should be treated identically) two meaningsEquality of opportunityEquality of outcomeRelative deprivationSelf- interest
29 Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Socialization Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic PrejudicePsychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic PrejudiceSocializationEgalitarianism—term has two meaningsEquality of opportunityEquality of outcomeRelative deprivationsSelf- interestRelative deprivation
30 Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic PrejudicePsychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic PrejudiceSocializationEgalitarianism—term has two meaningsEquality of opportunityEquality of outcomeSelf- interestRelative deprivationLittle personal knowledge of people who are different
31 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice ---> > >Belief in equality of opportunityImplicitly anti-Black affect and negative stereotypesModern-Symbolic prejudiceBlacks should work harderOpposition to equality-enhancing social programsContinuing racial inequalityRacialized belief in traditional valuesClaims of continued inequality are unjustifiedIndividual discriminationLow belief in equality of outcomeGroup self-interestMinority groups demand special favorsInstitutional DiscriminationLow knowledge of Black people or people of colorMinority groups receive underserved outcomes
32 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Subtle Prejudice Strongly endorse the traditional values of dominant social group’s culturesExaggeration of cultural differences as a component of subtle prejudiceSee differences between majority and minority cultures as greater than they really are.Leads to the belief that minority group memers could never adopt or coexist with the majority culture.
33 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice Attitudes of a person who tries to.....ignore the existence of Black people or people of color,tires to avoid contact with tem ,and at most to be polite, correct, and cold whatever dealings are necessary between the races
34 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice Characteristics of Aversive PrejudiceDominant social group absorb implicit negative attitudes towards minority groups while they are growing up in American societyReject the racialized traditional beliefs that support modern-symbolic prejudiceStrongly motivated to see themselves as unprejudiced and lack of prejudice is an important aspect of their self-conceptPrefer to avoid most interracial contact because it arouses the negative affect they associate with minority groups.
35 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice Three underpinnings for Psychological Bases of Aversive PrejudiceCognitive categorizationPredisposition leads people to categorize people into discrete social groups and to contrast groupsBelief that their own group is better than other groupsSocialization of two sets of incompatible values that are in conflictWill not discriminate in situation in which they recognize that discrimination would be obvious to others and themselves.Situational factors that arouse prejudice such as interracial interactions
36 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice Aversive Prejudice and BehaviorsAvoidance of contact with members of minority groupsMotivated by feelings of anxiety and discomfortLow intimacy with members of minority groupsHighly scripted situations, rules for interaction are clear and accepted by all participantsOverly positive intergroup behaviordesire to appear unprejudiced
37 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice Aversive Prejudice and BehaviorsPro-White biasShow pro-white bias in ambiguous situationsAnti-minority discriminationWill discriminate against members of other groups when the behavior can be justified as unprejudicedDerogation of higher status minority group membersBelief in White superiority, discomfort is greater when Black people or people of color are in higher status positions.
38 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Ambivalent Prejudice Ambivalent prejudice holds that the majority social group (White Americans) genuinely accept the principle of racial equality. However, they perceive that people of color have negative and positive characteristics, and their attitudes and behavior are ambivalent towards these minority social groups.
39 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Ambivalent Prejudice Types of ambivalent racial attitudesIndividualism—emphasizes personal responsibility, hard work as the means to success, self-reliance, and trying to improve one’s lot in lifeHumanitarianism/egalitarianism—belief that all people should be treated equally and that people have a responsibility to help others who are disadvantaged
40 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Ambivalent Prejudice Theory of ambivalence by majority groupHistory of Black people leads to perception as deviant and disadvantagedAffect peoples perceptionsLeads to negative feelingsFeelings of sympathy for the disadvantagedLeading to mixed feelings/Benevolence
41 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Ambivalent Prejudice Psychological ConflictConflict with the egalitarian value systemCognitive dissonance—people prefer that all their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors adhere to simple, consistent patterns. Any inconsistencies or contradictions lead to a state of unpleasant emotion which people are motivated to reduce
42 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Benevolent and Hostile Prejudice Benevolent Prejudice--is expressed in terms of positive beliefs and emotional responses to targets of prejudiceHostile prejudice--refers to the traditional form of prejudice. Expressed in terms of negative beliefs about and emotional response to targets of prejudice
43 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Old-fashioned Racism Marta believes that political correctness has gone too far and that everyone knows Blacks should have been kept in their place. She would prefer her children attend segregated schools and believes that Blacks simply don’t have the same abilities as whites.
44 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Contemporary Prejudice Bill simply doesn’t believe that Blacks today are discriminated against. He is sure that Blacks who work hard earn good salary and that lazy Blacks get the pay they deserve. Bill is sure that the reason he has not been promoted to supervisors is because his company has a quota system that favors Blacks and other minorities over whites.
45 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Ambivalent Prejudice Julie thinks of herself as an accepting person and readily admits that Blacks have been disadvantaged in many ways. She strongly believes that when tax dollars go to support the poor, it is money well spent and helps level the playing field. Yet, at the same time, Julie can’t understand why Blacks don’t try a little harder to fit in. She dislikes hip hop, for example, and thinks that those artists set a bad example for younger people by both their dress and their manner. She gets uncomfortable, however, when her daughter points out that such beliefs are incompatible with a tolerant perspective.
46 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Subtle Prejudice Silvia lives in Northern Italy and genuinely likes many of the people she’s met from Southern Italy. At the same time, she sees a larger cultural gap between her beliefs and those of many Southern Italians; in her view, people from that region are sexist and intrusive, compared to people from her area who value tolerance.
47 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice Harold thinks of himself as an accepting person. He regularly contributes money to the American Civil Liberties Union because they are such good advocates for equality for all people. However, when Harold chose his house, he was careful to find a predominately White neighborhood and joined local social organizations whose members were similar to him. He would be very upset if one of his children married a person of another race.