Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Prepared by S. Saterfield, Whitley& Kite, (2006) The Psychogy of Prejudice and Discrimination

2 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice
Research suggest that prejudice continues to be alive and well in the United States, however only in a subtle rather than overt form. What evidence support this statement?

3 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice
2001 Gallup poll: 64% White respondents –very satisfied or somewhat satisfied with way Blacks treated in society. 64% White respondents—replied the same when asked about Hispanics. Implications of research is that prejudice has decreased.

4 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice
Others Studies indicate that stereotypes become less negative over time. Several studies indicate changes in attitudes of the general population, for example Beliefs about the social roles of women has become less stereotyped between 1970 and 1995 Attitudes towards lesbians and gay men had become less negative between 1973 and 1996. But is America Truly becoming less prejudiced?.

5 Bogus Pipeline Research:
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice Bogus Pipeline Research: Assessment of behavior also indicate that prejudice continues. 64% White 39% Blacks 45% Hispanics Respondents said they were satisfied with the way Blacks and Hispanics were treated as indicated in a Gallup Poll

6 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice
Is prejudice in this country becoming more indirect and subtle compared to the overt and blatant prejudice of the past? Can positive stereotypes as well as negative stereotype reflect a prejudiced mind-set? EEOC report

7 Day-to-day experience of women and members of minority groups
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice Bogus Pipeline Research: participants answered questions while their physiological responses are measured by what they believe to be an effective lie detector Physiological and implicit cognition measures of prejudice: self-reported data indicate low levels of prejudice nonetheless exhibiting physiological responses indicating negative emotions Day-to-day experience of women and members of minority groups

8 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice
Women and African Americans Reporting Observed Sexist or Racist Behavior -2 week Type of Behavior SEXIST BEHAVIORS: Gender-role stereotyping Demeaning comments Sexual Objectification RACIST BEHAVIORS: Nonverbal behavior Verbal expressions Bad service Interpersonal offense Examples Expressions of a double standard for men and women Referring to a woman as “bitch” or “chick” Staring at breasts, unwanted touches Hostile stares, being watched closely in stores Racial slurs, prejudiced jokes Whites who arrived later seated first in restaurant Rude behavior, avoiding contact % Reporting 36% 31% 25% 24% 18% 15%

9 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice
Why is there a contradiction between people’s non-prejudiced responses to questions about race, gender, and sexual orientation and their prejudiced everyday behavior?

10 But Only Bad People Are Prejudiced....... Two social issues-
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice But Only Bad People Are Prejudiced Two social issues- Change in American racial attitudes since World War II Jim Crow Racism

11 Affect of world events on American racial attitudes
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice Affect of world events on American racial attitudes Before World War II prejudice by the dominate group against members of other groups was the social norm. Refer to as JIM CROW RACISM

12 JIM CROW RACISM Whites were inherently superior to other races
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice JIM CROW RACISM Whites were inherently superior to other races Keeping members of minority groups at a distance through racial segregation (More) Use of laws and power of government to establish racial segregated school system and other forms of discrimination (examples of Jim Crow Laws) Restriction of voting rights California had more Jim Crow laws enacted then any other state.

13 WORLD WAR II Beginning of change in racial beliefs and attitudes
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice WORLD WAR II Beginning of change in racial beliefs and attitudes U.S. government portrayed Nazi racist as dangerous and un-American U.S. proclamation of Nazi racism lead to a look at paradoxes in our own society American values changed to racial prejudice was no longer acceptable

14 Within the two decades following WW II legislation was proposed
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice WORLD WAR II Within the two decades following WW II legislation was proposed Desegregating armed forces Voting rights act passed Equal employment opportunity

15 Made segregated schools illegal
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice Anti-communist Cold War How could the U.S. criticize communist for violating civil liberties of their citizens while not granting full equality to all U.S. citizens. Racial equality established as a social norm in 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown v, Board of education Made segregated schools illegal

16 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice
Implicit prejudice Negative stereotypes still exist and are absorbed in the negative emotions associated with those stereotypes Individuals are not aware of having them Effect people’s emotional responses to and behavior towards minority groups

17 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice
Implicit prejudice Prejudices that can be assess through implicit cognition and some behavioral measures which people are not aware of having. Learned through socialization The nature of prejudice has changed from being “hot, close and direct” to being more “cool, distant and indirect”.

18 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Transformation of Prejudice
Racism changed from being normal to being bad and racist began to be seen as bad people. Can behaviors change from a cultural legacy of 400 years of racism in only a few decades?

19 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Theories of Contemporary Prejudice
Three Propositions: Genuine change in American’s social norms since WW II, belief in the principle of equality for all people Not everyone has accepted this norm to the same degree Even those people who have not yet fully accepted the norm are motivated to act in non-prejudiced ways

20 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Theories of Contemporary Prejudice
Dominant social groups who hold contemporary prejudices express those prejudices in ways that can be justified on unprejudiced grounds. Employ psychological defense mechanism to rationalize and justify their prejudice behavior.

21 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Theories of Contemporary Prejudice
People will express those prejudices in ways that can be justified on unprejudiced grounds People will have a genuine acceptance of the principle of equality and rejection of traditional prejudice with effects of old-fashioned prejudices that has been learned while growing up.

22 Four Theories of Contemporary Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Theories of Contemporary Prejudice Four Theories of Contemporary Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Subtle Prejudice Aversive Prejudice Racial Ambivalence

23 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice
Symbolic racism: a set of beliefs about Black people as an abstract group (anonymous they—”If they would only...) rather than as an individuals. Can be applied to any minority social group. Beliefs are expressed behaviorally as ACTS that are justified on a nonracial basis but that operate to maintain the racial status quo Which leads to discrimination

24 Old-fashioned Racism:
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Old-fashioned Racism: Based on belief in the biological inferiority of Black people and the attendant stereotypes Low intelligence Laziness Exclusion from certain jobs and segregated housing and social clubs: Legalized, formal discrimination in the form of racially separated schools and denial of voting rights

25 Difference between old-fashioned and contemporize racism—
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Difference between old-fashioned and contemporize racism— -old fashioned is based on belief in the biological inferiority of Black people and the attendant stereotypes of low intelligence. -symbolic racism is not link directly to race, linked indirectly to race through political and social issues. Most members of the dominant social group do not see symbolic racist beliefs as prejudice

26 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice
Symbolic racism was changed to modern racism to emphasize the contemporary, post civil-rights–movement new ideology or belief systems Some researchers have give this new contemporary form of prejudice a different name: racial resentment and laissez-faire racism

27 Characteristics of Modern-Symbolic prejudice-
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Characteristics of Modern-Symbolic prejudice- Racial prejudice and discrimination no longer exist Black-white differences in economic outcomes result from Black people’s lack of motivation to work hard enough to get what they want Black people are unwilling to work to get what they want, their continuing anger over inequality is unjustified Rather than working for the ahead, Black people seek special favors Relative to White people, Black people have been getting more than they deserve economically. -\

28 Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Socialization (learning from childhood) Egalitarianism—(value system based in belief that all people are equal and should be treated identically) two meanings Equality of opportunity Equality of outcome Relative deprivation Self- interest

29 Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Socialization
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Socialization Egalitarianism—term has two meanings Equality of opportunity Equality of outcome Relative deprivations Self- interest Relative deprivation

30 Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice
Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice Socialization Egalitarianism—term has two meanings Equality of opportunity Equality of outcome Self- interest Relative deprivation Little personal knowledge of people who are different

31 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Modern-Symbolic Prejudice
---> > > Belief in equality of opportunity Implicitly anti-Black affect and negative stereotypes Modern-Symbolic prejudice Blacks should work harder Opposition to equality-enhancing social programs Continuing racial inequality Racialized belief in traditional values Claims of continued inequality are unjustified Individual discrimination Low belief in equality of outcome Group self-interest Minority groups demand special favors Institutional Discrimination Low knowledge of Black people or people of color Minority groups receive underserved outcomes

32 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Subtle Prejudice
Strongly endorse the traditional values of dominant social group’s cultures Exaggeration of cultural differences as a component of subtle prejudice See differences between majority and minority cultures as greater than they really are. Leads to the belief that minority group memers could never adopt or coexist with the majority culture.

33 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice
Attitudes of a person who tries to..... ignore the existence of Black people or people of color, tires to avoid contact with tem , and at most to be polite, correct, and cold whatever dealings are necessary between the races

34 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice
Characteristics of Aversive Prejudice Dominant social group absorb implicit negative attitudes towards minority groups while they are growing up in American society Reject the racialized traditional beliefs that support modern-symbolic prejudice Strongly motivated to see themselves as unprejudiced and lack of prejudice is an important aspect of their self-concept Prefer to avoid most interracial contact because it arouses the negative affect they associate with minority groups.

35 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice
Three underpinnings for Psychological Bases of Aversive Prejudice Cognitive categorization Predisposition leads people to categorize people into discrete social groups and to contrast groups Belief that their own group is better than other groups Socialization of two sets of incompatible values that are in conflict Will not discriminate in situation in which they recognize that discrimination would be obvious to others and themselves. Situational factors that arouse prejudice such as interracial interactions

36 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice
Aversive Prejudice and Behaviors Avoidance of contact with members of minority groups Motivated by feelings of anxiety and discomfort Low intimacy with members of minority groups Highly scripted situations, rules for interaction are clear and accepted by all participants Overly positive intergroup behavior desire to appear unprejudiced

37 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice
Aversive Prejudice and Behaviors Pro-White bias Show pro-white bias in ambiguous situations Anti-minority discrimination Will discriminate against members of other groups when the behavior can be justified as unprejudiced Derogation of higher status minority group members Belief in White superiority, discomfort is greater when Black people or people of color are in higher status positions.

38 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Ambivalent Prejudice
Ambivalent prejudice holds that the majority social group (White Americans) genuinely accept the principle of racial equality. However, they perceive that people of color have negative and positive characteristics, and their attitudes and behavior are ambivalent towards these minority social groups.

39 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Ambivalent Prejudice
Types of ambivalent racial attitudes Individualism—emphasizes personal responsibility, hard work as the means to success, self-reliance, and trying to improve one’s lot in life Humanitarianism/egalitarianism—belief that all people should be treated equally and that people have a responsibility to help others who are disadvantaged

40 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Ambivalent Prejudice
Theory of ambivalence by majority group History of Black people leads to perception as deviant and disadvantaged Affect peoples perceptions Leads to negative feelings Feelings of sympathy for the disadvantaged Leading to mixed feelings/Benevolence

41 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Ambivalent Prejudice
Psychological Conflict Conflict with the egalitarian value system Cognitive dissonance—people prefer that all their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors adhere to simple, consistent patterns. Any inconsistencies or contradictions lead to a state of unpleasant emotion which people are motivated to reduce

42 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Benevolent and Hostile Prejudice
Benevolent Prejudice--is expressed in terms of positive beliefs and emotional responses to targets of prejudice Hostile prejudice--refers to the traditional form of prejudice. Expressed in terms of negative beliefs about and emotional response to targets of prejudice

43 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Old-fashioned Racism
Marta believes that political correctness has gone too far and that everyone knows Blacks should have been kept in their place. She would prefer her children attend segregated schools and believes that Blacks simply don’t have the same abilities as whites.

44 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Contemporary Prejudice
Bill simply doesn’t believe that Blacks today are discriminated against. He is sure that Blacks who work hard earn good salary and that lazy Blacks get the pay they deserve. Bill is sure that the reason he has not been promoted to supervisors is because his company has a quota system that favors Blacks and other minorities over whites.

45 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Ambivalent Prejudice
Julie thinks of herself as an accepting person and readily admits that Blacks have been disadvantaged in many ways. She strongly believes that when tax dollars go to support the poor, it is money well spent and helps level the playing field. Yet, at the same time, Julie can’t understand why Blacks don’t try a little harder to fit in. She dislikes hip hop, for example, and thinks that those artists set a bad example for younger people by both their dress and their manner. She gets uncomfortable, however, when her daughter points out that such beliefs are incompatible with a tolerant perspective.

46 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Subtle Prejudice
Silvia lives in Northern Italy and genuinely likes many of the people she’s met from Southern Italy. At the same time, she sees a larger cultural gap between her beliefs and those of many Southern Italians; in her view, people from that region are sexist and intrusive, compared to people from her area who value tolerance.

47 Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Aversive Prejudice
Harold thinks of himself as an accepting person. He regularly contributes money to the American Civil Liberties Union because they are such good advocates for equality for all people. However, when Harold chose his house, he was careful to find a predominately White neighborhood and joined local social organizations whose members were similar to him. He would be very upset if one of his children married a person of another race.


Download ppt "Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google