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TRANSTIBIAL SURGICAL TECHNIQUE A Review and Panel Discussion.

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Presentation on theme: "TRANSTIBIAL SURGICAL TECHNIQUE A Review and Panel Discussion."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSTIBIAL SURGICAL TECHNIQUE A Review and Panel Discussion

2 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Surgical Technique Most common surgical techniques are: Most common surgical techniques are: 1. Long Posterior Flap a) Burgess Technique b) Bruckner Technique 2. Anterior/Posterior Fish Mouth flap 3. Sagittal Flap 4. Skewed Flap 5. Ertl Procedure

3 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Long Posterior Flap – Burgess Technique Designed by Kendrick 1956 and made popular by Burgess Designed by Kendrick 1956 and made popular by Burgess Most common surgical technique for transtibial amputation. Most common surgical technique for transtibial amputation.

4 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Long Posterior Flap – Burgess Technique Tibia cut 10-15cm from knee joint line Tibia cut 10-15cm from knee joint line Fibula cut 1-1.5cm shorter than tibia Fibula cut 1-1.5cm shorter than tibia Long posterior flap marked with length 5cm longer than the diameter of the calf at the cut end of the tibia Long posterior flap marked with length 5cm longer than the diameter of the calf at the cut end of the tibia

5 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Long Posterior Flap – Burgess Technique Long posterior flap consisting mainly of the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscle and some soleus. Long posterior flap consisting mainly of the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscle and some soleus. Debulking the soleus muscle may be required. Debulking the soleus muscle may be required. To avoid dog years rounding up of the perpendicular incisions has been recommended. To avoid dog years rounding up of the perpendicular incisions has been recommended.

6 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Long Posterior Flap – Burgess Technique Flap fixed anteriorly by fascioperiostial sutures Flap fixed anteriorly by fascioperiostial sutures Skin and subcutaneous tissue sutured. Skin and subcutaneous tissue sutured. Anterior scar line runs medial/lateral. Anterior scar line runs medial/lateral.

7 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Long Posterior Flap – Bruckner Technique Modified long posterior flap technique developed in Germany by Bruckner in the 1980s Modified long posterior flap technique developed in Germany by Bruckner in the 1980s Landmarks and skin incisions are equivalent to the Burgess technique. Landmarks and skin incisions are equivalent to the Burgess technique.

8 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Long Posterior Flap – Bruckner Technique Fibula disarticulated proximally and resected Fibula disarticulated proximally and resected Complete resection of the anterior and lateral compartments and complete resection of the soleus muscle. Complete resection of the anterior and lateral compartments and complete resection of the soleus muscle.

9 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Long Posterior Flap – Bruckner Technique Flap consists mainly of medial gastrocnemius with some lateral gastrocnemius if needed Flap consists mainly of medial gastrocnemius with some lateral gastrocnemius if needed Closed in similar fashion to Burgess technique Closed in similar fashion to Burgess technique

10 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: AP Fish Mouth Flap Early surgical technique for transtibial amputation described by Persson. Early surgical technique for transtibial amputation described by Persson. Semicircular skin flaps with length ¼ the circumference around the cut end of the tibia Semicircular skin flaps with length ¼ the circumference around the cut end of the tibia Equal anterior and posterior flaps. Equal anterior and posterior flaps.

11 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: AP Fish Mouth Flap Posterior musculocutaneous flap consisting of gastrocnemius. Posterior musculocutaneous flap consisting of gastrocnemius. Anterior flap consists mainly of skin and subcutaneous tissue. Anterior flap consists mainly of skin and subcutaneous tissue. Myodesis of posterior musculature to end of tibia. Myodesis of posterior musculature to end of tibia.

12 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: AP Fish Mouth Flap Suturing of superficial fascia and skin. Suturing of superficial fascia and skin. Scar line runs medial/lateral on inferior surface of stump. Scar line runs medial/lateral on inferior surface of stump.

13 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Sagittal Flap First described by Tracey First described by Tracey Incision lines for skin flaps marked on skin. Incision lines for skin flaps marked on skin. Tibia cut cm from knee joint line (A). Tibia cut cm from knee joint line (A). Anterior apex of skin flap 1cm lateral to tibial crest(1). Anterior apex of skin flap 1cm lateral to tibial crest(1).

14 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Sagittal Flap Semicircular flaps medial and lateral. Semicircular flaps medial and lateral. Inferior margin of flap = 13-15cm + ¼ circumference of the calf at the cut end of tibia. Inferior margin of flap = 13-15cm + ¼ circumference of the calf at the cut end of tibia.

15 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Sagittal Flap Lateral flap consists of the anterior and lateral muscles and overlying skin. Lateral flap consists of the anterior and lateral muscles and overlying skin. Medial flap consists mainly of medial gastrocnemius and overlying skin. Medial flap consists mainly of medial gastrocnemius and overlying skin. Muscle flaps brought over end of tibia and fibula to form a myoplasty. Muscle flaps brought over end of tibia and fibula to form a myoplasty.

16 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Sagittal Flap Skin and subcutaneous tissue sutured. Skin and subcutaneous tissue sutured. Scar line runs anterior to posterior Scar line runs anterior to posterior

17 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Skewed Flap First described by Robsinson et al First described by Robsinson et al Incision marks for skin flaps marked on skin. Incision marks for skin flaps marked on skin. Anterior junction between the two flaps is at least 2cm from the tibial crest. Anterior junction between the two flaps is at least 2cm from the tibial crest.

18 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Skewed Flap Posterior junction 180° from anterior junction. Posterior junction 180° from anterior junction. Length of skin flaps the same as for the Sagittal technique. Length of skin flaps the same as for the Sagittal technique.

19 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Skewed Flap Posterior muscle flap of gastrocnemius is trimmed and fashioned to cover the distal end of the tibia and fibula. Posterior muscle flap of gastrocnemius is trimmed and fashioned to cover the distal end of the tibia and fibula. Myoplasty of the posterior flap to the periostium and deep fascia of the anterior tibial compartment. Myoplasty of the posterior flap to the periostium and deep fascia of the anterior tibial compartment.

20 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Skewed Flap Anteromedial and posterolateral fasciocutaneous flaps are closed in an oblique fashion Anteromedial and posterolateral fasciocutaneous flaps are closed in an oblique fashion Scar line runs from anterolateral to posteromedial Scar line runs from anterolateral to posteromedial

21 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Ertl Procedure Technique developed by Dr Janos Ertl in Hungary in the 1920s and first described in the literature in Technique developed by Dr Janos Ertl in Hungary in the 1920s and first described in the literature in Performed by his three grandsons now in the USA, mainly on traumatic amputees. Performed by his three grandsons now in the USA, mainly on traumatic amputees. Performed both as primary operation and as a revision. Performed both as primary operation and as a revision. Designed to seal the medullary cavity of the tibia and fibula to allow end weight bearing. Designed to seal the medullary cavity of the tibia and fibula to allow end weight bearing.

22 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Ertl Procedure Both techniques can be performed with a long posterior, sagittal or skewed flap incision. Both techniques can be performed with a long posterior, sagittal or skewed flap incision. Two different techniques to seal the medullary cavity: Two different techniques to seal the medullary cavity: 1. Periosteal sleeve 2. Bony wedge fashioned from removed fibula

23 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Ertl Procedure: Periosteal Sleeve Long posterior (6cm) and short anterior periosteal flap created off of the end of the tibia. Long posterior (6cm) and short anterior periosteal flap created off of the end of the tibia. Periosteal flap is taken with some flakes of bone from the posterior surface of the tibia. Periosteal flap is taken with some flakes of bone from the posterior surface of the tibia.

24 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Ertl Procedure: Periosteal Sleeve Flaps are sutured over the tibial osteotomy as a pouch. Flaps are sutured over the tibial osteotomy as a pouch. Bone chips and bone slurry placed in the pouch. Bone chips and bone slurry placed in the pouch. Same procedure done for the fibula. Same procedure done for the fibula. Sealing callus develops over weeks to months Sealing callus develops over weeks to months

25 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Ertl Procedure: Periosteal Sleeve Variation of periosteal sleeve is to suture the periosteal flaps of the tibia and fibula together to form a tube. Variation of periosteal sleeve is to suture the periosteal flaps of the tibia and fibula together to form a tube. In this technique periosteum is incised anterior to posterior creating medial and lateral flaps. In this technique periosteum is incised anterior to posterior creating medial and lateral flaps. Medial flap of the tibia sutured to lateral flap of the fibula. Medial flap of the tibia sutured to lateral flap of the fibula. Lateral flap of the tibia sutured to the medial flap of the fibula. Lateral flap of the tibia sutured to the medial flap of the fibula.

26 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Ertl Procedure: Fibular Bone Block Consists of a osteotomy of the fibula Consists of a osteotomy of the fibula Hinged on a lateral periosteal sleeve transversely into a notch on the lateral distal tibia. Hinged on a lateral periosteal sleeve transversely into a notch on the lateral distal tibia.

27 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Ertl Procedure: Fibular Bone Block Sutures through drill holes are used to secure the bone block to the distal ends of the tibia and fibula. Sutures through drill holes are used to secure the bone block to the distal ends of the tibia and fibula.

28 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Ertl Procedure: Fibular Bone Block Bone block covered by perisoteal sleeve Bone block covered by perisoteal sleeve Myoplasty completed by suturing the posterior to anterior and lateral muscles Myoplasty completed by suturing the posterior to anterior and lateral musclesOR Securing the posterior muscles into the osteoperiosteal bridge. Securing the posterior muscles into the osteoperiosteal bridge. Skin flaps sutured. Skin flaps sutured.

29 TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTATION: Ertl Procedure: Fibular Bone Block

30 EVIDENCE COMPARING SURGICAL TECHNIQUE Cochrane Review 2007, Type of incision for below knee amputation Cochrane Review 2007, Type of incision for below knee amputation Three RCTs met the criteria. Three RCTs met the criteria. One trial (Ruckley et al 1991) compared skew flap versus Burgess long posterior flap. One trial (Ruckley et al 1991) compared skew flap versus Burgess long posterior flap. One trial (Termansen et al 1977) compared sagital versus Burgess long posterior flap. One trial (Termansen et al 1977) compared sagital versus Burgess long posterior flap.

31 EVIDENCE COMPARING SURGICAL TECHNIQUE Found no significant difference between surgical techniques in regard to: Found no significant difference between surgical techniques in regard to: 1. Failed primary stump healing 2. Post-op infection rate 3. Reamputation at same level 4. Reamputation at higher level 5. Mortality 6. LOS 7. % fit with a prosthesis

32 UPCOMING RESEARCH In Oklahoma USA a RCT comparing Ertl procedure to other surgical procedures started in January 2006 and will be completed in December In Oklahoma USA a RCT comparing Ertl procedure to other surgical procedures started in January 2006 and will be completed in December 2008.

33 REFERENCES Ruckley et al 1991, Skewflap vs long posterior flap in below knee amputations: Multicenter trial. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 13:3 p Ruckley et al 1991, Skewflap vs long posterior flap in below knee amputations: Multicenter trial. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 13:3 p Stahel et al 2006, Concepts of transtibial amputation: Burgess technique versus modified Bruckner procedure. ANZ Journal of Surgery. 76: p Stahel et al 2006, Concepts of transtibial amputation: Burgess technique versus modified Bruckner procedure. ANZ Journal of Surgery. 76: p Tisi PV & Callam MJ. Type of incision for below knee amputation, Cochrane Collaboration 2007:3. Tisi PV & Callam MJ. Type of incision for below knee amputation, Cochrane Collaboration 2007:3. Robinson et al 1982, Skew flap Robinson et al 1982, Skew flap


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