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TRADITIONAL MUSIC IN TURKISH MUSIC EDUCATION ASSİST. PROF. DR. ATİLLA COŞKUN TOKSOY ISATNBUL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY TURKISH MUSIC STATE CONSERVATORY.

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Presentation on theme: "TRADITIONAL MUSIC IN TURKISH MUSIC EDUCATION ASSİST. PROF. DR. ATİLLA COŞKUN TOKSOY ISATNBUL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY TURKISH MUSIC STATE CONSERVATORY."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRADITIONAL MUSIC IN TURKISH MUSIC EDUCATION ASSİST. PROF. DR. ATİLLA COŞKUN TOKSOY ISATNBUL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY TURKISH MUSIC STATE CONSERVATORY

2 Recently, some related examples can be observed. Looking at Turkish music education history, it will be convenient to evaluate the traditional music education in two different periods, namely, the Ottoman Empire Period and the Republic period. Within the westernization movement of the Ottoman Empire, modern music education methods of Europe were adopted, so the usage of notes started to take place in writing, performing and educating music. Moreover, important changes occurred in music education institutes and music life. After the establishment of the republic, music education in Turkey was shaped according to the national policies basically by adopting the European education method. Therefore, these policies were effective on placement and teaching of traditional music in the music education. Recently, some related examples can be observed.

3 In this paper, the above mentioned period was examined in a historical context and then practice concept will be defined which is the basic education method of traditional music in Mediterranean region. Finally, with a modern point of view, an evaluation regarding the placement of the practice concept within the modern approaches used in the education of traditional music especially in primary and secondary schools will be made. Whats traditional? In this paper, I prefer using the term Ottoman-Turkish Makam Music to describe traditional music. As you know, Ottoman- Turkish Makam Music is based on makam. Its also mainly a vocal music.

4 THE OTTOMAN PERIOD Institutions in the Ottoman Period Two significant institutions in the Ottoman history are theEnderun and the Tekke-s beside the Mehterhane. Ottomans have founded the first education institution in the palace, ranging from military to fine arts and from politics to diplomacy were taught at Enderun, initially founded by Fatih Sultan Mehmet. Lots of significant artists graduated from this school. Enderun, which also functioned as a conservatory, had important role in improving the aesthetic structure of the Ottoman-Turkish music.

5 Tekke-s had an important role about Turkish Sufi Music. Music and dance took palace in tariqas like Mevlevilik, Kadiri, Rıfai, Bedevi, Şazeli, Bayrami, Devrani, Halveti. Many kinds of music instruments were used in tekke-s including ney, rebab, kudüm, bendir (bendir), Zil (halile) and def. Especially in Mevlevihanes, great composers appeared. Until turning into Muzika-i Humayun, Mehterhane has served as the main institution of military music. In the Ottoman period, the members of Mehter were educated in Enderun.

6 The fundamental education system of Ottoman-Turkish Music: MEŞK Meşk is an education system mainly based on Ottoman-Turkish Music tradition and which has been conveyed not by written documents but by the memories from the past to the present like in many other eastern societies and former western cultures. Rhythmic structure and lyrics are important complementary elements of the melody in Ottoman-Turkish music. Since it is based on words due to its structure, therefore, the principle component of the education system is to strike the rhythmic patterns (usul). Furthermore, that the lyrics were written down instead of using music notation and that there are more found in lyrics books than the music notation documents underline clearly that the lyrics were significant complementary element of the melody in the education system.

7 "Meşk", a term borrowed from the calligraphy, means that to learn the writing style by rewriting them plenty of times under the supervision of a teacher. Regarding Turkish music education, it can be considered that an extensive repertory is memorized under the supervision of a teacher. Memory has a great importance in the Ottoman-Turkish music tradition. The number of memorized, in other words, learnt by heart works is thought as a criterion indicating the artists worth and level. If not memorized, then the work could not be a part of the performer and could not be performed in a certain style and interpretation.

8 The memory and the number of memorized work are some of the most important parts of the meşk system as a teaching method in Ottoman-Turkish music. Thus, a teacher looks for some features, whether a hanende (singer) first of all like nice voice, fine hearing abilities, minimum rhythmic perception and marked musical adequacy to be accepted for the meşk, as general tendency in any other music education systems. A potential hearing memory is a must to be successful in music education with meşk method, because the number of memorized works is a criterion to understand the worth and level of an artist since no music notation is used.

9 To make use of a master teacher was very important in such a method which is just based on the memory, not a written source. To make use of a master teacher was very important in such a method which is just based on the memory, not a written source. The first thing to get from the master was to memorize the work, next to interpret this memorized piece. The first thing to get from the master was to memorize the work, next to interpret this memorized piece. The other fundamental of the performance of Ottoman- Turkish music was the style (üslup), which had also very substantial role in the education system. The style can be described as such: to perform the work with an expression appropriate to the meaning of its lyrics, apt to the makam which was used for the composition, without deforming the rhythmic pattern and the form and at last introducing own aesthetic understanding while respecting to the composers. The other fundamental of the performance of Ottoman- Turkish music was the style (üslup), which had also very substantial role in the education system. The style can be described as such: to perform the work with an expression appropriate to the meaning of its lyrics, apt to the makam which was used for the composition, without deforming the rhythmic pattern and the form and at last introducing own aesthetic understanding while respecting to the composers.

10 With the recording technologies, meşk altered in a way where the records of the major performers became the master teachers for the next generation along with the face to face education by a master teacher. With the recording technologies, meşk altered in a way where the records of the major performers became the master teachers for the next generation along with the face to face education by a master teacher. Tanburi Cemil Bey, who is the master teacher with his records and carried his style and fashion to the next generation, is one of the most distinctive figures in terms of instrumental music education. Tanburi Cemil Bey, who is the master teacher with his records and carried his style and fashion to the next generation, is one of the most distinctive figures in terms of instrumental music education. The same is true for the hafız-s (one who recites the Koran) when regarding the vocal music education. The same is true for the hafız-s (one who recites the Koran) when regarding the vocal music education.

11 At the present, the music notation is the basic educational means in the modern conservatory education system. However, learning and performing the works only by the notation is unachievable as a matter of Ottoman- Turkish music. At the present, the music notation is the basic educational means in the modern conservatory education system. However, learning and performing the works only by the notation is unachievable as a matter of Ottoman- Turkish music. Especially teaching stick to the notation cannot even be discussed in the voice and instrument performance classes in the performance departments, although music notation is the basic educational means in the modern conservatory education system. Especially teaching stick to the notation cannot even be discussed in the voice and instrument performance classes in the performance departments, although music notation is the basic educational means in the modern conservatory education system. Notation has always the role as reminder for the person who teaches and memorizing the work has a priority regarding the education. Notation has always the role as reminder for the person who teaches and memorizing the work has a priority regarding the education. Furthermore, the elements of style and fashion, such as ornamenting, nuances etc., which are not notated, are conveyed to the student through meşk, in other word, through performing the work lots of time by the teacher after the student memorized it. Particularly the main point in singers education is striking the rhythmic pattern while singing the work. Furthermore, the elements of style and fashion, such as ornamenting, nuances etc., which are not notated, are conveyed to the student through meşk, in other word, through performing the work lots of time by the teacher after the student memorized it. Particularly the main point in singers education is striking the rhythmic pattern while singing the work.

12 Effects of Ottoman Westernization in Music Just like in the republican period, the polyphonic studies and developments in terms of western ideology beginning with the administrative reforms (tanzimat) could be put on an academic base. In 17th and 18th centuries, Mehter, which attracted the interest of classical composers with its quality and expression elements, was displaced by military band after the abolishment of the Yeniçeri Ocağı With founding the military band appropriate to the Western Europe counterpart, polyphony was officially embraced by the state, so that a new and radical transformation period begun for the Turkish music culture. (1826). Mahmudiye March, which is the first polyphonic Turkish musical work and is considered as the first Turkish national anthem, was composed in these years. Muzika-i Humayun (The Band of the Sultan), music school covering both the Eastern and Western music was founded ( ).

13 Guiseppe Donizetti ( ), brother of Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti established it as an educational institution where western techniques were applied for the first time in Turkey and also it contined a western type of military band. (1828) Later, a palace orchestra and a fasıl group were added to the institution. Muzika-i Hümayun became very significant with its native and foreign teachers. The core of the first Turkish Symphony Orchestra was created (1840). Composing and arranging in European fashion and alla Franga became widespread. Printing and publishing sheet music started (1876) performing and composing music based on written documents became popular.

14 First public formal music school, Darülelhan (literary the house of melodies) was established and the first sample of music education in a real, modern, systematical and institutional structure appeared in Unfortunately, the attempts lasted very short. The Turkish music branch of Darülelhan was closed by the decision of the National Education Ministry in 1925 and its name was changed into conservatory. After the 1920s, formal music education in Turkey began to be given in the institutions named conservatory. Other than this institution, there were just studies of amateur associations.

15 THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD The National Style (Milli Müzik) In the former instance, the widespread adoption of European political ideals precipitated two attempts at constitutional reform and eventually paved the way for the dramatic events of the 1920's when the Ottoman Empire eventually collapsed and when Turkey itself became a Republic under the leadership of its founder, Mustafa Kemal (later titled, Atatürk, ). In the latter instance, European aesthetic preferences (alafranga) competed with (and in some instances replaced) native urban sensibilities (alaturka) in a wide range of cultural practices. This critical perspective is especially apparent in the writings of Ziya Gokalp ( ) a Turkish sociologist. In particular, Gökalp articulated a contemporary concern for a revolutionary musical change by defining a new or national style (milli musiki) and by reforming deviant practices according to western technical and musicological principles. As a result, his book (The Principles of Turkism / Türkçülüğün Esasları) provoked an acrimonious debate concerning the correct constitution of this national style, polarizing pro-western (alafranga) and pro-eastern (alaturka) into opposing perspectives and legitimizing aesthetic preference according to the nationalist ideals of Kemalizm (after 1931).

16 Institutions in the Republican Period In Istanbul, first Istanbul Municipality Conservatory was established. In this In Istanbul, first Istanbul Municipality Conservatory was established. In this context, Tevhîd-i Tedrisat Kanunu (Law of Uniting the education) started to context, Tevhîd-i Tedrisat Kanunu (Law of Uniting the education) started to run. run. (1924) and Musiki Muallim Mektebi as a principle institution (1924) was (1924) and Musiki Muallim Mektebi as a principle institution (1924) was founded, Darülelhan reopened in 1923 was altered to conservatory (1926), founded, Darülelhan reopened in 1923 was altered to conservatory (1926), Detection and Classification Commission of traditional Turkish art music (1926) Detection and Classification Commission of traditional Turkish art music (1926) and performing group was introduced (1927), radio started to broadcast music and performing group was introduced (1927), radio started to broadcast music (1927), State Conservatory was launched (1936), Music department of Gazi (1927), State Conservatory was launched (1936), Music department of Gazi Training Institute was opened and Musiki Muallim Mektebi was transferred Training Institute was opened and Musiki Muallim Mektebi was transferred there (1937), Military Band Secondary school took the first step in (1938), there (1937), Military Band Secondary school took the first step in (1938), archive of Turkish Folk Music was formed (1938). State Opera (1949) and archive of Turkish Folk Music was formed (1938). State Opera (1949) and Ballet (1959) was founded, television started to broadcast music (1968). Ballet (1959) was founded, television started to broadcast music (1968). Polyphonic Chorus of Turkish Radio Television Institution (1971), Musicology Polyphonic Chorus of Turkish Radio Television Institution (1971), Musicology Department of Fine Art School (1975), Turkish Music State Conservatory Department of Fine Art School (1975), Turkish Music State Conservatory (1975), State Classical Turkish Music Ensemble (1978), State Turkish Folk Music (1975), State Classical Turkish Music Ensemble (1978), State Turkish Folk Music Ensemble (1987), State Polyphonic Ensemble (1989), Music and Performing Ensemble (1987), State Polyphonic Ensemble (1989), Music and Performing Arts School (1986), Music Department of Anatolian Fine Arts High School Arts School (1986), Music Department of Anatolian Fine Arts High School (1989) were founded and started to operate. (1989) were founded and started to operate.

17 Paul Hindemith, well known German composer, was invited to Ankara in April 1935 and collaborated with Turkish musician, foremost with Necil Kazım Akses for the foundation of State Conservatory. Ottoman-Turkish Makam Music Alaturka Education in Republican Period Along with the Darülelhan, many associations and private music schools showed activity in the teaching and performing Turkish music from the beginning of the century to the first years of the republican period. The most important ones are Terakk-i Mûsıkî Mektebi (1922), Gülşen-i Mûsıkî Mektebi (1925), DARÜTTALİM-İ MÛSIKÎ (1916, lasted until 1931) DARÜL FEYZ-İ MÛSIKÎ, (This school is called later ÜSKÜDAR MÛSIKÎ CEMİYETİ), DAR'ÜL MÛSIKÎ-İ OSMANİ (1908). In addition to these, Public Houses are similarly to be noted. Furthermore, Ankara Mûsıkî Cemiyeti founded by Fehmi Tokay in Ankara, İzmir Mûsıkî Cemiyeti whose president was Râkım Elkutlu for a long time, İleri Türk Mûsıkî Konservatuvarı (Advanced Turkish Music Conservatory) founded by Laika Karabey in 1948 and (one of its teachers being Hüseyin Sâdeddin Arel) are all the foundations guiding many of still working artists to be educated.

18 Since the establishment of the Turkish State Music Conservatory in 1976, Ottoman-Turkish Makam Music didnt take part at the state conservatory programs and other institutions. Turkish Music State Conservatory founded in 1976 is the first Turkish music state conservatory and now attached to Istanbul Technical University. Later, Aegean University State Turkish Music Conservatory in 1984 and Gaziantep University State Turkish Music Conservatory in 1988 were established. Turkish Music State Conservatory was established in 1975 and received its first students in Ercüment Berker, Muharrem Ergin, Cahit Atasoy, Neriman Tüfekçi, Yücel Paşmakçı, Cüneyt Orhon, Yılmaz Öztuna, İsmail Baha Sürelsan, and Alaattin Yavaşça consisted its first board. Foundation encouraged research, documentation, performance, and education of Turkish Music which had been abandoned for long time. Another important aim of this generation was to expose substantial values of Turkish Music in the process of creating new national music.

19 Today, there are 18 programs in 4 divisions of instrument training department. The Music Technologies Department has programs of Instrument Making and Sound Recording; The Voice Training Department has Turkish Art Music and Turkish Folk Music Programs. Music Theory, Musicology, Composition, and Turkish Folk Dances Departments continue their training on their own programs. With the process of the reconstruction of Turkish Music State Conservatory in 2001, a Turkish Music Master Program -which covers academic programs of seven departments- and the very first Musicology and Music Theory PhD Program of Turkey were established. They carry out a collaborate education system in an international level, encouraging visitor researchers and academicians. Although, students who graduated from Turkish Music Conservatory has started to work as music teachers in these schools after 80s, the Ottoman – Turkish Makam Music also didnt take place in primary and secondary schools music syllabus until Music syllabus, applied from 1986 by this time, has included makam and usul theory beside the examples of simple makam music pieces from the 6th grade up to the 12th grade.

20 Since the concept modernity is taken from the West and the modern music education systems from European music, writing, teaching and performing the work by notation has a major role in Ottoman-Turkish education system. In this context, following questions appear with the founding of especially Turkish music conservatories which established their structures on the modern and contemporary education systems: Is it possible to make meşk by using music notation? Is it possible to memorize the repertory? Is it practicable to interpret the works in terms of style and fashion? The answers of these questions are parallel with the fact that the music notation cannot exactly represent the repertory conveyed by the meşk system.

21 After foundation of the Turkish Music State conservatory, the Arel-Ezgi-Uzdilek system has been used in Ottoman –Turkish Makam Music education. Music notation is a fundamental component of this system. As a result, teaching makam theory and repertory in primary-secondary schools has gone parallel with the Turkish Music State conservatories. In this point, some difficulties occurred in primary and secondary schools music classes on traditional music. First of all, it is not possible to find teachers who have knowledge about traditional music all the time. The reason for this is that other music teacher training schools programs, except the Turkish State Conservatories just like Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi, did not contain classes on makam music. The Lack of time is another problem. Music classes are made only 40 minutes per week in primary and secondary schools weekly lesson program. Music teachers have to emphasize all music issues, which are listed in the syllabus in that limited time. And finally, the most important question may be asked on the priority in traditional music education: which one comes first? Theory or practice?

22 Could Orff-Schulwerk evoke a reassessment of Meşk in general music education? Orff-Schulwerk, which is a music education approach by Carl Orff, has become widespread in Turkish music education in recent years. Additionally, Id like to discuss some educational tools to be used both Orff-Schulwerk and Meşk. Using speech or the oral tradition: lyrics Speech or lyrics and their rhythmic value are important during the learning process. process. Rhythmic component or Usul The starting point of Orff-Schulwerk is the rhythmic building blocks. The principle component of the meşk system is to strike the rhythmic patterns (usul).

23 Motion and Percussion Orff Schulwerk uses poems, rhymes, games, songs, and dances as examples and basic materials. These may be traditional or original. Spoken or sung, they may be accompanied by clapping and stamping (body percussion) or by drums, sticks, and bells. In this case, to strike the rhythmic patterns using by hands (usul) can be defined as a body percussion exercise. Relationship between oral transmission and notation Like many ethno-cultures Orff-Schulwerk privileges oral learning, using various procedures of direct (audio-oral-visual) transmission, imitation and memorization musical materials. Oral technique concerns, furthermore, the way the musical materials and process are conceived and treated: improvisation and composition do not imply the use of notation. Music theory, when explicitly used, is directly functional to music practice.

24 If notation is ever used, Orff-Schulwerk doesnt use only conventional notation, but mostly a variety of preparatory and complementary forms of sound representation/symbolization. Not one notation, then, but many different notations: gestured, verbal, graphic notations. As I mentioned, we can see the similarities between Orff-Schulwerk and Meşk system. Orff-Schulwerk gives us great opportunities and logical ways to teach traditional music in general music education. The vitality of the Schulwerk lies in the possibility to evolve and change over decades, maintaining a constant reference to the anthropological roots of human musicality. It can promote and disseminate in all educational institutions a concept of music and music education that is anthropologically founded: to guide ethnomusicological research in identification of musical areas that may be interesting for music education; to collaborate in constructing intercultural materials and procedures for a different learning context; to value and disseminate the knowledge of the cultural heritage of a country and in general of all the music of the whole world.

25 What type of teacher is needed for traditional music in general music education? Finally, we need to describe our music teacher who is responsible for traditional music training in schools. What are his skills, knowledge and basic characteristics? It is essential that the teacher has a good musical training and a good knowledge of many different musical genres and styles; it is essential that he has on open musical mind. In the present context, teachers need a wider musical experience than the one usually prescribed bye the euro-centric academic training. If, as ethnomusicology affirms, there is not one music- one universal language- but many music- a plurality of musical languages, systems and cultures- then a fundamental requisite for teaching is to become polyglot and to have a good orientation in a large horizon of world music. In his role, so to say, of an active anthropologist of music teacher should be able to observe the culture of the group, to get in contact with students both at a human and at a musical level, to understand their ideas, perspectives and identities.


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