2The Slovak Republic - our homeland The Slovak Republic is situated in the heart of Europe.Slovakia is surrounded by Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Ukraine.The capital city is Bratislava. It is situated in the south-western part of Slovakia.Slovakia is populated by more than 5,4 million inhabitants.The official language of our country is the Slovak language.Our national currency is the Euro.
3History of SlovakiaThe Slovak territory has been settled very early. The first tribes that settled down in this area were the Celts and Dacians.In the fist century A. D. the Germanic tribes came to the territory of Slovakia.In the 6th century in the era of Migration of People the Slavic tribes started to settle down.Since the 8th century the territory of Slovakia became the part of the Great Moravia Empire.Later, mainly in the 10th century the Slovak territory started to be governed by the Magyars.(the Old Hungarians) and from the 11th century until 1918 it became the part of Hungarian Kingdom.In 1918 the first Czechoslovak Republic was established.Shortly before the World War II. Slovakia was granted an autonomy within Czechoslovakia and in 1939 an independent Slovakia , under control of the Hitler´s Germany was declared .In 1945 Slovakia became the part of Czechoslovakia again.In 1948 the communist party of Czechoslovakia came to power and governed the country under the Soviet Union control till NovemberIn spring 1968 there was an attempt initiated by the Communist party to reform the Soviet system. The idea and hope were over rolled by the invasion of the Soviet army as well as armies of other four Warsaw Pact countries. A strictly pro-Soviet government was installed.In 1989 the pro-democratic movement started in Eastern Europe. The Fall of the Berlin Wall influenced the political system in Czechoslovakia as well.In November 1989 „ The Velvet Revolution“ started a new stage - a parliamentary democracy - for the both federal republics .In Czechoslovakia was split into two independent countries – the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic.
4The Renaissance in general The term Renaissance means a rebirth or revival. It comes from the French renaître (to be born again) and the Italian Rinascimento (rebirth).This cultural movement started in Italy, in the city of Florence, in the 13th century. To Central Europe it came later- in the 15th century.A prominent position in this period was hold by Humanism. Humanist´s new ideal was education, so many new types of school were established.Ideas of the Renaissance and Humanism were spread by pilgrims and students who came to Italian cities.The Renaissance meant a return to the Roman and Greek Antiquity.Terrestrial man was recognised, life on Earth was celebrated and reason won over the backwardness of the Church.This new epoch was associated with the increasing role of the townspeople.One of the basic features of the Renaissance is the individualism- an interest of human´s life.The architecture of the Renaissance was different from the Gothic style. Chateaux, palaces and city houses were built. Buildings were low, horizontal division of building was emphasised. Windows and doors had square and rectangular shapes.In art, especially in painting , Greek art had a major influence. The beauty of the human body was discovered, based on harmonious body proportions. The artists showed people in a truly way, they tried to catch their typical appearance.The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci
5The period of the Renaissance is very closely bound with The Age of Discovery – also called The Age of ExplorationLong overseas voyages were undertaken. Discoveries of new lands extended the knowledge of the world.Discoveries in the natural sciences and astronomy (the heliocentric opinion) threatened the Church´s authority.
6The Renaissance in Slovakia The ideas of Humanism and Renaissance spread to Slovakia in the second half of the 15th century thanks to the students who studied abroad (in today´s Italy, Germany, Austria) and to the reformation that spread from Germany.Matthias Corvinus with his wife Beatrix of Naples were „the parents of the Renaissance“ in SlovakiaAfter 1526 the territory of southern Hungary was occupied by Ottoman Sultan. Many of the wealthy aristocrats, patrons of Renaissance architecture, were killed in the battle of Mohacs. Hungary split into three parts.The Thurzo´s renaissance house in Levoča
7As Buda (the Hungarian capital) was under Turkish occupation, Pressburg (the former name of Bratislava) was chosen to have been its capital in Slovakia was more or less a buffer zone between the Turks and the Habsburgs. The neighbourhood with the Turks brought a lot of suffering to inhabitants of the border regions in general due to time-to-time Turkish raids.The unsteadiness of usual life resulted in poor economic activity. The Turkish threat effected Slovakia for more than 150 years. This situation is regarded as a negative influence on the full spread of Renaissance in the territory of Slovakia
8The Slovak Renaissance architecture Public buildings and aristocratic palaces were built. At the beginning Gothic decorative elements were replaced by Renaissance, for example portals, alcoves; an example is the Town Hall in Bardejov (completed in 1509). After fire the Late Gothic Town hall in Levoča was rebuilt in Renaissance style. There are arcades on the ground floor; on the western facade there is a loggia. The hall on the ground floor is arched by a star-ribbed vault.The Town Hall in Bardejov
9Builders and building masters of northern Italy were invited. The main building scheme of the period was the construction of fortifications and defensive fortresses against Turks. The defensive system was completed by watchtowers, so called 'vartovky'.Builders and building masters of northern Italy were invited.Renaissance fortifications were built at Branč Castle by Nyári family, at Plavecký Castle by Fugger family.Luxury requirements as well as the necessity of defence led to the construction of fortified mansions. The best known realization of such renaissance mansions are the castle in Bytča (1574)and a nearby Wedding Palace(1601) . Notable is the complete renaissance reconstruction of the originally medieval castle Červený Kameň.Sgraffito and attics are typical renaissance features present on our territory.The Wedding Palace in Bytča
10The Town Hall in Bardejov The Town Hall of the city Bardejov built in 1505, was the first Renaissance building in Slovakia. It is situated in the centre of the square. The lower part was originally built in the Gothic style, while the upper part was finished in the Renaissance style. The Town Hall is listed by the European Fund of Cultural Heritage UNESCO.
11The castle Červený Kameň In the 13th century a stone castle was built. This castle was rebuilt in the 16th century as a seat of the Palffy´s family (baron Palffy was the Supreme Commander of the Hungarian army). Now it is one of the nicest museums in the area of Bratislava.
12Renaissance painting in Slovakia Renaissance painting in Slovakia was influenced by the Italian origin of Beatrix of Naples- the wife of the king Matthias Corvinus - and the humanistic intellectuals who came to the Hungarian Kingdom from abroad.Zachariáš Mošovský was one of the leading humanist scholars . He was the initiator of the establishment of the Diocesan Library in Nitra. He was interested in history, he wrote biographies of the Hungarian kings and the Bishops of Nitra.Painting was created in support of architecture - particularly sgraffito decoration of the facades of representative buildings, but also sometimes interior wall paintings, altar paintings and portraits.Painted epitaphs or painted decoration of wooden 'cassette' ceilings formed a specific genre of Renaissance painting.The typical Renaissance paintings are painted epitaphs that showed a dead person kneeling in front of the cross and after-death cataphalque portraits.Portraits were very popular and became a starting point for the first family galleries.The political situation was complicated by the Turkish raids and many artists had to leave.
13Renaissance sculpture in Slovakia Since the first half of the 16th century.The centre of art production at this time was western Slovakia.Under the influence of the Reformation, the production of altar sculpture gradually faded away and sculptural art was refocused on tomb sculpture for the aristocratic and ecclesiastical hierarchy.The Renaissance art of sculpture in Slovakia is represented by the unique Roland’s Fountain in Bratislava
14Renaissance fashion in Slovakia Beatrica of Naples – wife of Matthias Corvinus brought to Slovakia elements of Renaissance fashion - it was recognized in the 15th and 16th century. Their wedding took place in Buda in 1476.Their wedding robe became the foundation of fashion in our country. They called it dressing in “Hungarian Style”. Men´s clothes had an indication of Turkish fashion.
15FashionClothes of peasant people: clothes of men consisted of shirt, linen or cloth trousers with slit, in the town background slim fit pantyhose. Men wore simple coats up to knees with long sleeves with collar or without, with button up and thigh with belt with metal buckle.Women` s clothes – skirts with waist, to which also bodice could be bound. Fashion of peasant people was mostly Hungarian (out of Austro-Hungarian Empire) for which the most characteristic was decorative work, using of embroideries, decorative laces, buttons and fur.In the 17th century men wore trousers. Women wore shirts without sleeves and short shirt with sleeves. The clothing was moulded with other components – men shirts, waistcoat, women` s aprons and bodices.
16The Slovak Renaissance Literature The development of literature during this period was associated with the development of the school system.Humanist-oriented literary output appears in Slovakia in particular from the 1540s until the mid 17th century.The best known renaissance writers: Pavol Rubigal, Jakub Jakobeus, Michal Insitoris, Ján Silván, Ján Sambucus, Martin Rakovský, Vavrinec Benedikt from Nedozery , Pavel Kyrmezer. Juraj Tesák MošovskyThe most valuable books: Prayers of Spis , City book of Žilina, New Songs on Seven Penitential Psalms and Other Psalms by Ján Silván, Comedy Taken from the Book of the Law of God and the Word of Ruth by Juraj Tesák Mošovský, The Tears, Sighs and Pleas of the Slovak Nation by Jakub Jakobeus, songs about soldiers, fairy-tales.used languages: Latin, Czech and Slovak-Czech languagebasic topic: history (Turkish invasion)
17The City book of Žilina- the oldest and the most important book of language and law Vavrinec Benedikt Nedožerský
18Education and scienceAcademia Istropolitana was the first University in the Hungarian Kingdom and also in Slovakia. It was established in 1465 by Matthias Corvinus. It did not last long. It was closed down after the death of the ruler- in 1490, but it was the beginning of Humanism. We can easily recognize the influence of Humanism in literature. Beside of the Christian libraries also personal, or individual libraries were created. We can also recognize the interest in the ancient authors. In the second half of the 16th century there were also letterpresses in Slovakia.After the closing of the University – Slovakia was almost one and half centuries without University. In clergyman Pazman set up the University of Trnava, which became under his leadership the leading institution in the country in the area of education.Similar University was also created in Kosice in 1657.The level of education in other cities such as Presov, Kezmarok, Bratislava was very high.Peter Pazmany
19Music Renaissance in glee, enhancing of the meaning of the musical instruments.Artistic music is set by the school and the church. Both of them are unified by the teacher and cantor.The main aim of the Latin school was not to bring up composer or virtuoso, but first of the singer for the choir.West Slovakia – Duomo of St. Martin in Bratislava, in Trnava – Church of St. Nicolaus,Middle Slovakia – Banska Bystrica, Banska Stiavnica, Kremnica and ZvolenEast Slovakia – Spisska Kapitula, Levoca, Kosice and Presov.The real era of glee started in the time from 15th to 17th century.It is mostly represented by organ.
21Arrival of the Renaissance in Bratislava Beatrix of Naples and Matthias CorvinusHumanism and Renaissance in Bratislava is associated with Matthias Corvinus and his wife Beatrix of Naples.She was an enthusiastic fan of the Humanism and the Renaissance. Her arrival went together with many scholars who came not only to Bratislava, but also to Hungarian KingdomDuring the reign of Matthias Corvinus Bratislava obtained the Golden bull of King Matthias in 1464 (it confirmed its privileged position ) and a new privilege of the sword.Bratislava was also chosen for the seat of university - Universitas Istropolitana was established in This university followed an example of the university in Bologna. Bratislava became known in the Europe.The Renaissance as an artist expression arrived in Bratislava later, many year´s after king´s death.The Battle of Mohács in 1526 was disastrous for our country, but Bratislava benefited from this complicated situation. The Turks started to occupied Buda and Hungary had to find another seat of the royal offices. Bratislava was a prosperous town, not very far from Vienna and still saved from Turkish attacks. From 1536 Bratislava became the capital city of Hungarian Kingdom, the seat of palatine, supreme judge, chancellor and since 1563 the coronation city of Hungarian kings and queens.The coronations took place until 1830, the first king crowned in St. Martin´s Cathedral was Maximilian II. in 1563.
22The Universitas Istropolitana -founded in 1465 by the King Matthias Corvinus-the first University on the Slovak territory-the University's 3irst chancellor was Juraj Schomberg, the provost of Bratislava-opened in 1467-four faculties: the Faculty of Free Arts, the Faculty of Theology, the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Philosophy-well-known professors: Ján Regiomontanus (Muller) from Kráľovec, a famous astronomer and mathematician, who taught at the Faculty of Arts , Ján Bylica from Olkusz (Poland), a famous astronomer, who taught at the Faculty of Arts , theology was also taught by Vavrinec from Krompachy , Mikuláš Schriecker de Huttendorf, Angelus Rangon, a theologian from Pern, Mathias Gruber, Aurel Brandolini, an Italian humanist, and Jakub Piso-the end of the university is unclear, maybe it was caused by the lack of funds , maybe by the death of Matthias Corvinus in 1490-nowadays it´s the seat of the Faculty of Fine Arts
23The outstanding figures of Universitas Istropolitana Ján Regiomontanus MullerMatthias Corvinus
24The Maximilian´s fountain (Roland´s fountain) The oldest, but the nicest and the most popular fountain in Bratislava.It´s situated in the Main Square, in the centre of our city.It was built in 1572 by Andreas Lutringer because of lack of a public water source. The King Maximilian II who was coronated as a first king in Bratislava contributed to this fountain. During his coronation celebration there was a fire , many buildings were completely destroyed and Bratislava needed a public water source.There are two opinions of the statue- one says that the statue portrays the King Maximilian II, other says that this is a portrait of the knight Roland.People also believe that this statue can move.The Main Square with its fountain is very popular among tourists.
25The Old Town HallThe Old Town Hall is one of the most important building at the Main Square. It was rebuilt for several times.In the second half of the 16th century the tower of the Town hall was rebuilt in the Renaissance style. Six Renaissance windows were put into the facade. Renaissance arcades, added in 1581, have been preserved up to now .The interior of the Town hall was rebuilt in the Renaissance style in the 17th century. The hall was divided into two ones, which were given new ceilings.
26The Bratislava´s Castle in the 16th century The Renaissance restoration of the castle started in The result of this reconstruction was a luxurious Renaissance seat of the King.The reconstruction was led by the Italian architect Pietro Ferrabosco.Originally there were only two corner towers, not four like nowadays. In the south-western tower the Hungarian crown jewels were sheltered. Since that time we call this tower the Crown Tower.The Renaissance style was seen also in the interior of the castle. Italian artists decorated the interior with valuable frescos and wall painting.. Many of these decorations were damaged in the first half of the 17th century but after many years they have been identified in a castle chapel and successfully restored
27Resources: www.wikipedia.org www.google.com Kol. autorov: Ottova encyklopédia, Ottovo nakladateľstvo 2006Lacika, J.: Bratislava-visiting Slovakia, Dajama 2000Guldan, P.: Renesančné a architektonické pamiatky Bratislavy, BIPS 1989Kol. autorov: Maturitné otázky z angličtiny, Petra Velanová 1998