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Interest, Talent and Academic Rigor:

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1 Interest, Talent and Academic Rigor:
A Model for FACS as the Cornerstone of the Curriculum

2 The Enrichment Triad Model
Developed in 1976 by Dr. Joseph Renzulli (U. Conn) Originally designed as a model for the education of gifted and talented students Since its original implementation in schools around Connecticut, several researchers (including Renzulli) began to wonder if the model would be equally beneficial to the general student population.

3 The Enrichment Triad Model
Now implemented in schools all over the United States and around the world, the ETM has been proven to: Increase creative-productivity Improve self efficacy Increased post-secondary education plans of students This method of teaching and learning encourages: • an appreciation that each learner is unique and therefore all learning experiences must be examined in ways that take into account the abilities, interests, and learning styles of the individual. • assessment of all learning activities for enjoyment, since learning is more effective when students enjoy what they are doing. • connections to real and present problems that are student-chosen. • student constructed meaning of content and learning.

4 The Enrichment Triad Model is comprised of three types of experiences
The Enrichment Triad Model is comprised of three types of experiences. Type 1 experiences “expose children to a wide variety of disciplines, topics, occupations, hobbies, persons, places and events” (Renzulli, Reis). Examples of Type 1 experiences might include watching a documentary, hearing a speaker, taking a “mini-course” or watching a performance. Type 2 experiences focus on the development of learning how to learn in a particular discipline. They involve the deliberate process of thinking and feeling about the discipline and the work it entails (Renzulli, Reis). Type 3 activities involve a student becoming a first-hand inquirer (Renzulli, 1976).

5 ETM in one FACS classroom
I have been teaching the “Career Development” component of Family & Consumer Science utilizing an adapted version of this method for the last three years. While the ETM was not originally designed to teach career development, the researcher utilizes an adapted form of the Enrichment Triad Model in a 7th grade career development course. It is adapted because the course does not provide Type 1 experiences. Instead, it is expected that students already have a developing interest in a specific career. Sixth grade teachers and the researcher prompt students throughout their sixth grade year to consider potential career choices as they read books, learn about different topics, watch television, engage in conversations, and as they do extra-curricular activities. In a sense, engagement with the curriculum and their extra-curricular activities, as well as conversations with meaningful adults and peers, act as Type 1 experiences. At the end of sixth grade, the school counselor and the researcher work together to ask students to pick a “career cluster” that they will study in 7th grade. While most students’ choices do fall into one of the pre-designed clusters, students with different interests are always accommodated. Some recent examples of career interests that did not fall into the already designed groups include chemistry, meteorology, sociology and philosophy. Pre-designed clusters include: Architecture & Interior Design, Business & Finance, Creative Writing, Culinary Arts, Education, Engineering & Computer Science, Fashion Design, Film, Photography & Music, Forensic Science & Law, Life Sciences (plant, animal and earth), Medicine, Psychology, Sports, Exercise & Nutrition.

6 Guiding Questions: What do people with an interest in this area (for example, film making) do? What kind of products do they create and/or what services do they provide? What knowledge, materials, and other resources do they provide? What methods do they use to carry out their work? How, and with whom, do they communicate the results of their work? In what ways can we use the product or service to affect the intended audience? After students have chosen a career to study in my class, the course becomes an individualized experience in which the students’ interests and talents guide choices in the learning material provided. Six key questions guide learning in the Career Clusters during the class. These six questions are suggested by Renzulli & Richards (2000) to guide all Enrichment Clusters for middle school students:

7 Language of the Discipline
It is with these questions in mind that enrolled students begin their Type 2 experience. Students are engaged in creative problem solving and advanced level reading in the particular discipline they have chosen to study. It is here where the class really begins. Students are first required to become familiar with the “language of the discipline”. They are given 100 vocabulary words commonly used in their field of study. They must learn the definitions to these words and then create a piece of art that uses these words and also represents their chosen field in some way (see Appendix 1). This particular aspect of the course is aimed at providing students with the “intellectual instruments with which a subject specialist works” (Ward, 1960).

8 Once students have completed this part of the course (each moving at his or her own pace), students then read three teacher-chosen articles. These articles are chosen based on their career field and specific interest (robotics within the field of engineering, for example). These vary based on students’ reading level but are always at a “striving” level rather than at the students determined reading level, which is consistent with the model’s design. Students write letters to the teacher about the articles, including what questions they still have, what they would like to know next, and if they have remained interested in the content of the discipline or if they think they might like to change career paths. Through this experience, as well as group discussion, students begin to think about the knowledge they are gaining. They consider their own potential contributions to the field and also begin to analyze how they incorporate new knowledge into their schema. The teacher uses a unique rubric to grade these written assignments. It is geared toward encouraging students to engage in Type 2 activities in which they become reflective and active participants in the process. The rubric scores students based on their understanding of the technical information in the article but also on “mindfulness”, which is defined as “thoughtful, reflective discussion of the student’s understanding and questions” (Appendix 2). What ensues is a back and forth dialogue between the student and teacher that encourages questioning, self-reflection, and critical thinking.

9 Doctors and nurses learn suturing Forensic scientists
extract human DNA Once students have an understanding of the language used, and some concepts in their chosen field, as well as the beginnings of the learning processes required, they are ready to begin Type II activities. These include small hands-on projects that increase their understanding of the real world application of the language, theories, ideas, and skills of the discipline. These projects are almost always done in small groups with students of similar interests, which is important for many reasons. These goal-oriented groups are aimed at improving the positive worker traits mentioned in the New York State standards for FACS, like leadership, teamwork, creative and critical thinking skills, the management of time, people, and resources, and communication skills. They also promote positive feelings in students (Renzulli, Richards, 2000). Examples of goal-oriented team projects include the development of a solar-powered miniature car by the engineers, the design of food art for culinary artists, or a scale drawing and redesign plan of classroom space for the architects. While some students’ interests keep them out of small groups (for instance, there may be only one future chemist in a class), students are encouraged to move around the room, watch what others are doing, discuss ideas with people outside of their own career cluster, and engage in the thinking process and brainstorming of all students. In fact, “breaks” are taken from hands-on learning to discuss the work of others and help others negotiate road blocks. During this time, students also discuss how their learning and ideas might blend with others’ outside of their own discipline. In this way each career cluster revolves around a major discipline but also explores interdisciplinary themes. Culinary artists create food art Fashion designers design and sketch Engineers learn circuit design

10 Type III Projects provide opportunities for applying interests, knowledge, creative ideas and task commitment to a self-selected problem or area of study, acquire advanced level understanding of the knowledge (content) and methodology (process) that are used within particular disciplines, artistic areas of expression and interdisciplinary studies, develop authentic products that are primarily directed toward bringing about a desired impact upon a specified audience, develop self-directed learning skills in the areas of planning, organization, resource utilization, time management, decision making, and self-evaluation, develop task commitment, self-confidence, and feelings of creative accomplishment. When a student (or group of students) has completed two smaller projects, they are asked to design a big project. The big project is designed to contribute something new to the world (a product, service or idea) and must be presented to an authentic audience. This “big project” corresponds to the Type 3 activities described as part of Enrichment Triad Model. The goals of Type III enrichment include: • providing opportunities for applying interests, knowledge, creative ideas and task commitment to a self-selected problem or area of study, • acquiring advanced level understanding of the knowledge (content) and methodology (process) that are used within particular disciplines, artistic areas of expression and interdisciplinary studies, • developing authentic products that are primarily directed toward bringing about a desired impact upon a specified audience, • developing self-directed learning skills in the areas of planning, organization, resource utilization, time management, decision making, and self-evaluation, • developing task commitment, self-confidence, and feelings of creative accomplishment. It is at this point in the course that the teacher reminds students that they are the experts and that the teacher is there as a guide to provide supplies, guidance, and an ear for ideas. The teacher and teacher’s assistant then move around the room, watching and asking questions, providing advice and guidance when necessary, assuring task-orientation and, sometimes, just staying out of the way. The ultimate goal here is to “replace dependent and passive learning with independence and engaged learning” and to develop creative-productivity in students. (Renzulli, 1976).

11 One student completed a 10th grade chemistry experiment completely independently and could explain (to a peer and a high school chemistry teacher) what happened and why. One group of future architects held a series of business meetings, pitched the redesign of the school library, requested money from the Parent-Teacher-Student Association to do the actual redesign and then spent the year working to carry out the design. Three students conducted sociological experiments on the bystander effect, one built a magnificent catapult, and one developed a new religion. Two have built towering cakes that they gave as gifts, three raised money to help an organization that protects endangered animals, many have student-taught in the Pre-K and kindergarten classrooms, and one has assisted the district’s occupational therapist with kindergarten screenings. A group of six made a working hovercraft, a group of five designed and implemented an after-school intramural basketball club for 4th and 5th grade students, and five individual students designed and created fashion designs and had the courage to wear them to school. There are more projects that have impressed me and my colleagues but there are too many great ones to list them all here.

12 Lunch & Learns… For two years, 7th grade students have spent 5th and 6th period (a total of about 50 minutes) in special sessions with experts in their field. Guests to date include: Cornell’s Biofuels Department Binghamton University’s Art Gallery A professional Architect A cardiac nurse The Binghamton Zoo SUNY at Cortland – Sports Management Cornell University’s Fabrics & Textile Program Binghamton University – Engineering Research BAE – Engine Controls

13 After School Activities
Lectures on relevant topics to students areas of interest. High School teachers visit and share special interests and areas of expertise with students (fencing, reptiles, starfish dissections, photography and publishing books!) Community Members – PTS President “hires” culinary arts students to manage sale of baked goods. Health & Wellness committee “hires” Sports & Exercise students to explore possibility of intramural sports in the middle school. Students have begun organizing “documentary night” in their area of expertise. Students have planned after school clubs for students with particular interest in their Academy (Creative Writing Club, Flag Football, Fitness/Running Club, Creative Joy Art Club).

14 You’re thinking, “Lovely… but what about…”
State tests Common Core SLOs Budget Burn out

15 Constructivist Learning
This model is student-centered. It allows the teacher to be the facilitator of learning (not the imparter of knowledge). Helps create contextual learning experiences. Allows the learner to apply knowledge. Is an interactive process motivated by creation of disequilibrium for the learner.

16 Cognitive Engagement Allows students to make authentic choices and regulate their own learning. Allows students to immerse themselves in a task. Encourages mindful discovery and observation.

17 21st Century Skills This model promotes critical thinking, problem solving, global awareness and collaboration. It is problem and project based. It engaged students in authentic problem solving. It assists students in becoming college and career ready.

18 Student Performance: Academy models have been proven to increase student’s ability : to plan a task and consider alternatives to monitor one's understanding and the need for additional information to notice patterns, relationships, and discrepancies to generate reasonable arguments and explanations to draw comparisons and analogies to other problems to transform factual information in to usable knowledge to fluently access relevant knowledge and selectively extract meaning from information to predict outcomes to apportion time, money, and resources to communicate effectively in different genres and formats to apply knowledge and problem solving strategies to real world problems

19 And then other teachers started to notice…
So, we designed Career Academies and clustered students with similar interests into groups: Engineering & Technology Human Performance & Nutritional Science Applied Design Social Science Medicine

20 In Social Studies this year…
Students will be studying the election through the eyes of their own specialty. (Mental health care for Psychology, Education reform for future Educators, green energy for engineers and so on…) Groups of students will be expected to endorse one candidate over another based on proposed policies related to his/her career interest.

21 In Math this year… Students will be studying statistics through the lens of their own specialty. For example, XX% of students from poverty graduate high school (for future teachers) or XX% of the United States energy is gathered from solar energy (for future engineers) or XX% of the children living in the United States do not have access to adequate nutrition (for future culinary artists or nutritionists).

22 In ELA this year… Students will be writing their first major research paper on a topic related to their career discipline: For example, a future psychologist might write a paper on trauma in childhood and a future architect might write a paper on the design of the Empire State Building.

23 In Science this year… Students are looking at global warming and environmentalism through their career lens. For example, a future doctor might ask what the impact of global warming might be on human health. An animal scientist might wonder about animal extinction. An engineer might explore current inventions to combat these problems and a fashion designer might design a shirt to promote an environmental campaign.

24 In Health class this year…
Students examine tobacco through the lens of their chosen career discipline… A future fashion designer creates a ‘cigarette’ fashion in which to read her speech on the dangers of tobacco use.

25 Future architect, Aaron:
I did get frustrated a lot. I mean… A LOT because of all the hard work it was. The measurements we had to get it just right and it was very difficult but we finally got it done and laid it all down and I thought…I’m taking a lot of pride in what we’ve done because it looks very nice. And as this went on…it did change me as a person because if we just started it and I didn’t actually learn anything I would have just laid it down. I wouldn’t have paid attention to it. I would have just wanted to get it done. You know…it was really fun. I really do want to be an architect still, when I grow older and my plans are to graduate from Cornell University. I really want to go to Cornell and do architecture. I want to build and design buildings that go into nature…where you don’t bulldoze down trees. And I got that inspiration from an article that I read about someone who made these spheres. Three spheres…and it’s a hotel. I really like nature and I don’t want to destroy the trees that everyone is taking down. I want to save the environment. I don’t wanna tear more trees down because that’s what is giving us oxygen. And I don’t want to add on to more of everything. I want to contribute to nature.

26 What are students gaining?
In addition to the exploration of a specific career interest and the 21st Century Skills that are required for this type of learning, students are gaining a set of skills that are critical to future success for themselves and for our society.

27 In today’s careers, wisdom is required if we hope to create a socially and environmentally just and equitable world. The careers of the 21st Century require not only an understanding of self, but the application of intelligence to complex problems that will require responsibility, ethics, teamwork and collaboration. In a world of isolationism and disconnectedness, we can no longer afford workers who engage in selfish, self-centered, socially irresponsible or social destructive behavior. We are quickly declining in social capital and this is leading to feelings of isolation and disconnectedness, purposelessness, and alienation among people. The dense networks we used to have, which served to broaden sense of self, creating an understanding that we are a collective group, have disappeared (Putnam, 1995). This disconnectedness, isolation and “sense of senselessness” (Jung, 1933) and purposelessness (Salk, 1973) continue to grow at a rapid pace, with young people reporting feeling more alone than ever (Gardner & Fischmann, 2008). Feeling disconnected and feeling that one lacks a sense of purpose is both psychologically destructive to the individual and harmful to society (Damon et.al. 2003). This disconnectedness allows societies to struggle with the conflicting desires to either degrade or enhance human dignity. The degradation of human dignity leads to diminished feelings of personal identity and leads to increased isolationism. Without personal dignity and hope, “it is difficult to grant these things to others, to take responsibility for one’s actions, to gain a sense of agency or self-efficiency or to find alternatives to violence as an appropriate strategy to gain what one seeks” (Herr, 2001). Isolation and disconnectedness may lead people to make unwise decisions in their personal lives, school lives and, later, in their work lives. Those who become inwardly focused, emotionally isolated and disconnected become egocentric, believing that they are omniscient, omnipotent and invulnerable (Sternberg, 2012). This type of thinking leads to selfish, self-centered behavior that can sometimes be dangerous and is often socially destructive and irresponsible (Sternberg, 2012). Life becomes compartmentalized and society becomes divided according to public, private and professional worlds. This can exclude people from fully integrating self, society and work and when this integration does not occur, a fragmented view of one’s influence on things outside of him or herself occurs (Demkovich, 1997). Careers remove people from isolation and alienation (Savickas,, 1997; Bloch, 2005), by engaging them in action-oriented participation; (Blondel, as cited in Savickas, 1997) a give-and-take exchange with the outside world (Bloch, 2005) in which they become linked to other people (Savickas, 1997; Hall, 1996) and a larger social good (Peterson, 2012; Richardson as cited by Patton & McMahon, 2006). Career provides people with a sense of purpose (Pink, 2009), and interdependence, encouraging reciprocity, mutuality (Fletcher, 2004) and altruism (Peterson, 2012). Having “purpose” is linked to a host of positive behaviors, is often discussed in tandem with wisdom, and is considered, by at least one group of scholars to be a measureable component of wisdom (Jason et.al. 2001). Damon and his colleagues (2003) defined purpose in a way that delineated a direct link between the concept of purpose and the concept of wisdom. They said, “Purpose is a stable and generalized intention to accomplish something this is at once meaningful to the self and of consequence to the world beyond the self.” People actively use their careers as a way to engage with the world and recreate the social capital once provided by traditional community networks. They use their careers to find purpose and life meaning, to develop as individuals and even to replace organized religion, as a way to find personal spirituality (Wunthnow, 1998). Paulo Friere (1998) believed that “what makes men and women ethical is their capacity to “spiritualize” the world, to make it either beautiful or ugly. Their capacity to intervene, to compare, to judge, to decide, to choose, to desist makes them capable of acts of greatness, of dignity, at the same time, of the unthinkable in terms of dignity”. Work can spiritualize one’s life and the world around oneself. We see this in the use of the concept of “calling”, which used to be understood as a religious reference to a life in service to God through organized religion, but is now often referred to in describing a chosen career path. The concept of career as “a calling” crosses both ability and income levels, correlating only to the person’s opportunities to reflect on career choice, the level of information they’ve been given about careers and their level of education (Peterson, 2012). Career is considered “a calling” when it “serves a community, when the person sees it as an invitation to which they have chosen to respond, and when it engages one’s quintessential self or ‘genius’” (Hall, 2004). This spiritualization of one’s career allows a person to make meaning of his or her life’s purpose. It “enables each person to consider his or her contribution to the world, to the ongoing creation of the Universe” (Bloch, 2005) and gives value to every career, promising that our “individual microscale activity, in all its uniqueness, can count in a way classical science never imagined.” (Goerner, 1995, p.36). With this seeming desire for ‘interconnectedness’, spirituality, and purpose through career, new career development theories have emerged. The “new sciences” of chaos, complexity, and systems theories have assisted scholars in making sense of the ‘new career’; one which they hope will address the Nation’s current needs; combating a lack of wisdom in the workplace and connecting people in order to reduce the pathologies associated with isolationism including dishonesty, mindlessness, and unethical acts that are both selfish and destructive.

28 Mention video journals

29 Making career decisions Hands-on and technical skills
Family Fun Making career decisions Hands-on and technical skills Love/passion/absorption Global concerns/empathy for all living things Hard work Transformative change Post-high school plans Influence of teachers Classroom environment Understanding of career choice Independence Collaboration/relationships Desire to know more/become an expert Lifestyle Reading and writing Destiny ”It became obvious that four of these categories could be collapsed into one, which this study will call “interconnectedness”. These categories include “family”, “influence of teachers”, “classroom environment” and “collaboration/relationships”, and all spoke to the students’ understanding that the meaning they make of the class experience is related to the interconnectedness of themselves with other people (family members, teachers, peers and experts in their field of study). In a sense the theme that emerged from these four categories was one of an appreciation of others’ influence on the students’ experience, choices, decisions, and career identity. “Destiny” and “post high school plans” became one category which maintained the name “destiny”.

30 I believe that the exploration of careers (when done in a meaningful way) gives students the opportunity to become truly college and career ready by giving them a set of valuable skills and allowing them to understand their options. It also gives a critically important opportunity for exploration of self, community and relationships. Students gained an understanding of the value of their relationships and interconnectedness with other people. Students gained an understanding of how their unique talents could be used to make the world a better place. Students gained an appreciation for the joy associated with hard work. They learned what it felt like to be in a state of “flow”.

31 Social Studies teacher’s initial thoughts:
“The kids are so much more responsible for their own learning. In addition, when I sat in on lunch and learns or judged projects, I was able to talk to the kids about them, therefore strengthening bonds between the students and myself. Hearing students debate about who to vote for, based on actual candidate’s policies was so rewarding. The learning is deeper and richer. ”

32 Initial thoughts of the health teacher:
“This was such a better learning experience for not only the kids, but for me as well. My students taught me things that I didn’t know! On a daily basis, my students gathered information about what they were interested in…which made them more motivated to complete the project and do it well. In addition, they learned more about the Health topics that I introduced in class. I feel as a whole my students learned more by doing these independent research projects then they would have with a traditional project or worksheet in my class. And, I’ll be honest. This model is saving me from feeling burnt out and discouraged by education.”

33 Initial thoughts of the ELA teacher:
“As the year progressed, I noticed how stressed, burnt out, and disengaged my students were becoming because of benchmark assessments, test preparation, and state standards that needed to be met. I then reevaluated my original thoughts on the career path activity idea only to discover I could not have been more wrong about it being just another thing I had to do. Once I began to really ponder the idea of getting students more excited about their futures, I uncovered the value of Career Academies. Not only do my students need the opportunity to explore their futures, but they need to have the chance to do so in a structured and meaningful way. That is why I decided to go ahead and plan a unit based on this great idea.”

34 Initial thoughts of the math teacher:
“I would like the students to take time to discover how much math will be used in their college major should they decide to attend college after high school and in whatever career they choose. Since 7th grade math focuses on the basics of many different areas of math, I would like the students to learn how 7th grade math will be crucial to their success in high school and college math. I have found that my students are more invested in my curriculum when they can actually see the importance or use of a topic in math class. There have been times this year where I have incorporated examples that relate to different career academies. My students have been more engaged in math class on these days.”

35 Initial thoughts of the science teacher:
“Students were actively involved with their learning during the duration of the investigation. Students who frequently struggle and need assistance and supervision were independently researching and utilizing the laptops in the classroom to express their learning. It was thrilling to witness students shine; student who normally have difficulty learning and expressing themselves in a more traditional classroom setting, overwhelmed the instructor with the level at which they worked independently. Students were eager to start working every day and enjoyed showing their presentation to their peers. The freedom students felt from having choice in their learning, is still noticeable and carries into classroom instruction and projects.”

36 And if you’d like to speak with me further…
Send me an


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