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16. LANGUAGE IDEOLOGIES Based on Su, Hsi-Yao. 2011. The Meaning Contestation of Tai: Language ideologies and the global-local ambivalence. Concentric:

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Presentation on theme: "16. LANGUAGE IDEOLOGIES Based on Su, Hsi-Yao. 2011. The Meaning Contestation of Tai: Language ideologies and the global-local ambivalence. Concentric:"— Presentation transcript:

1 16. LANGUAGE IDEOLOGIES Based on Su, Hsi-Yao. 2011. The Meaning Contestation of Tai: Language ideologies and the global-local ambivalence. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics 37.2:283-308 I-wen Su CC 3.0 The Work under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0 License of BY-NC-SA.

2 Overview Taike : a cultural stereotype of young Taiwanese adults whose lifestyle, linguistic repertoire, and fashion sense are considered distinctively local and unsuccessfully imitative of current trends the term may index local identity and nonconformity – a way to explore language ideologies concerning localism, cosmopolitanism, and authenticity in Taiwan

3 Taike The term is composed of two morphemes: tai2 and ke4. Tai is the abbreviation of Taiwan. Ke has two main meanings (Kangxi Dictionary) 1. a guest; 2. a visitor; anyone from another place

4 What does Taike mean? Taiker culture is a kind of sub-culture in the new century similar to very Taiwanese? vulgar and impolite? good men but rude and low-level? negative? Northern Taiwan females, the higher-educated, and the younger evaluating the terms more negatively than their counterparts

5 Origin and development 1960s and 1970s The term or its variant was said to be used by young wai4sheng3ren2 ( ) (hereafter mainlander) gangsters in the 60s and 70s to refer to ben3sheng3ren2 ( ) gangsters, of whose lifestyle and taste they disapproved as vulgar 1990s Based on the appearance (not-in-fashion dress with bright and shining decorations) and behavior (ways of talking and the show-off style)

6 2004-2005 repackaging the term as something consumable and trendy, and even popular the TVBS program Liangdai dianli gongsi – the TV program invited college students or Taikes themselves to discuss issues related to Taike the Taike yaogun yanchanghui ( ) Taike Rockn Roll Concert was held to claim local identity and nonconformity

7 Around 2005 Taike Rockn Roll concert, well-known singers such as Wubai ( ) and Chen Sheng ( ) proudly reclaimed the word the print media published books (e.g., Call Me Taike) and special magazine issues (e.g., Eslite Reader), linking taike with local arts and culture. In this wave of taike discourse, tai is about local identity, and taike is uniquely Taiwanese

8 , - (05:31) ( and and a mash-up of two of their songs) with LIVE (04:52) (Tai2ke4 of different generations) 2010 (03:46) (Tai2mei4; Tai2ke4 dance; codeswitching between Cantonese, Taiwanese, Mandarin and English) (A comment below: + + + = )

9 Stigma the term taike has no equivalent in local languages other than Mandarin Even when the singers involved in the Taike Rockn Roll concert tried to promote the term, they had to code-switch to the Mandarin pronunciation of taike within an otherwise Taiwanese speech. This instance of code-switching illustrates that taike remains to be a term constructed by the Mandarin-speaking population.

10 Press Conference in 2005 A number of political organizations (Taiwan North Society and Taiwan Association of University Professors) consider the literal meaning of taike (Taiwan(ese) as visitors from outside) implies that Taiwan(ese) is secondary to China a total abandonment of the term was called for due to the lack of substantial change in its self- degrading nature

11 Defining characters four major defining characteristics:. Wang (2007) summarizes a mass of online tike discourses in 2004 and 2005> fashion senses linguistic practices behavior/conduct mentality Taike is one who mixes inconsistent stylistic elements and has an outdated fashion sense, who exaggerates and is showy, who pretends to know things that he actually doesnt know, who swears and speaks Taiwan guo2yu3, i.e., Taiwanese- accented Mandarin Wang, Mei-Zhen. 2007. What Does Tai Mean?: The Imagining of Taike Culture and Identity Construction.

12 Issues As of now, based on data 2008-2010 taike jokes are seldom heard. Tai, an adjective derived from taike, has developed into a common descriptor in everyday language in comments like Thats so tai. Issues regarding the adjectival use of tai the current attitudes across different social groups the ideologies concerning language, localness, globalness Su, Hsi-Yao. 2011. The Meaning Contestation of Tai: Language ideologies and the global-local ambivalence.

13 Categorizing Taike (Lin 2008) 1. Taike as a subjective group (Zhu 2003) 2. Taike as a construction by other (G. Chen 2006; Li 2006; Lin 2006; Wang 2007; Zheng 2003) 3. Taike as sub-culture (Chang 2006; Tsai 2004; ) 4. Taike as media reproduction (He 2006; Lai 2006) 5. Taike as a manifestation of cultural hegemony (G. Chen 2006; Wang 2007) Zhu, Bai Jing. 2003. Taike Culture as an Armed-Force against Modernity: Plans of the Southern Area of Old Taipei City. Chen, Guan-Ru. 2006. Taike: The Reproduction of Social Class in Taiwan and Cultural Hegemony. Li, Ming-Cong. 2006. The continuous discourse about taike: Whos talking?. Lin, Hong-Hang. 2006. The distinction of taste about taike: The discourse of new taike and the controversy. Wang, Mei-Zhen. 2007. What Does Tai Mean?: The Imagining of Taike Culture and Identity Construction. Zheng, Kai Tong. 2003. What is tai? The ambiguity in Taiwanese culture. Chang, Chieh-Mao. 2006. To See Industrial Design from Subculture: Custom Vehicle in Taike Culture. Tsai, Yao-hsien. 2004. Transgression and Recreation in Public Life: Taike Culture. He, Hong-Yi. 2006. How blog readers interpret and identify with the taike renaissance. Lai, Yi-Ting. 2006. The Rhetorical Vision of Taike as Constructed in Media: An Analysis of the Generation Show.

14 Two near-synonyms about localness: tai2ke5 and ben3tu3 the highest votes on taike: Wubai (, a male rockn roll singer who played a significant role in the Taike Rockn Roll Concert) The Sparkling Three Sisters (, a female singing group) Highest scores on bentu: Jacky Wu (, a male talk show host, singer, and actor) Shui-bian Chen (, the former president)

15 The meanings of localness Ben3tu3: commonly related to Taiwanization, indigenization, and Taiwanese Nationalism. The Taiwanese language is also strongly associated with the discourses related to bentu or Taiwanese Nationalism (Chiung 2007). closely tied with the identity label taiwanren, literally Taiwanese and is often promoted as a structurally sophisticated language that preserves archaic forms. In contrast, tai3 is often used to refer to Taiwanese young adults who are local but try to be above themselves. Chiung, Wi-vun Tiffalo. 2007. Language, literacy, and nationalism: Taiwans orthographic transition from the perspective of Han sphere.

16 Sociolinguistic factors Evaluation of Tai varies in terms of gender and education: female and the higher educated tend to evaluate tai more negatively Male and the lower educated tend to evaluate tai less negatively Age has significant effect on the evaluation of tai Members of the younger generation tend to evaluate it more negatively: the younger they are, the more negative the attitudes Ethnicity does not have any significant effect

17 Iconic relationship between attitudes and language practice Taiwanese-accented Mandarin as a stigmatized label is often stereotyped as a result of a Taiwanese speakers failed attempt at acquiring the standard accent. Non-linguistic characteristics associated with taike also show a parallel. E.g., wearing fake designer brands or mixing inconsistent fashion elements unwisely in an outfit >> implying failure to acquire the mainstream fashion sense (both a lack of competence and material resources)

18 Five attibutes of authenticity Notion of authenticity (Coupland 2003): ontology, historicity, systemic coherence, consensus, value The Taiwanese language and the local Taiwanese in the discourses of Taiwanese nationalism involve all five of them. Coupland, Nikolas. 2003. Sociolinguistic authenticities.

19 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.11 Wang, Mei-Zhen. 2007. What Does Tai Mean?: The Imagining of Taike Culture and Identity Construction. MA thesis, National Chengchi University. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.12 Su, Hsi-Yao. 2011. The Meaning Contestation of Tai: Language ideologies and the global-local ambivalence. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics 37.2:283-308 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.13 Zhu, Bai Jing. 2003. Taike Culture as an Armed-Force against Modernity: Plans of the Southern Area of Old Taipei City. MA thesis, Tamkang University. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW

20 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.13 Chen, Guan-Ru. 2006. Taike: The Reproduction of Social Class in Taiwan and Cultural Hegemony. MA thesis, National Taiwan Normal University. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.13 Li, Ming-Cong. 2006. The continuous discourse about taike: Whos talking?. Eslite Reader 56:44-46. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.13 Lin, Hong-Hang. 2006. The distinction of taste about taike: The discourse of new taike and the controversy. Paper presented at The Re-Emergence of Taike? Popular Culture and Identity Conference, Chinese Culture University. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW

21 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.13 Wang, Mei-Zhen. 2007. What Does Tai Mean?: The Imagining of Taike Culture and Identity Construction. MA thesis, National Chengchi University. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.13 Zheng, Kai Tong. 2003. What is tai? The ambiguity in Taiwanese culture. Contemporary Magazine 195:60–79. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.13 Chang, Chieh-Mao. 2006. To See Industrial Design from Subculture: Custom Vehicle in Taike Culture. MA thesis, Shih Chien University and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW

22 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.13 Tsai, Yao-hsien. 2004. Transgression and Recreation in Public Life: Taike Culture. MA thesis, Nanhua University. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.13 He, Hong-Yi. 2006. How blog readers interpret and identify with the taike renaissance. Paper presented at The Re- Emergence of Taike? Popular Culture and Identity Conference, Chinese Culture University. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.13 Lai, Yi-Ting. 2006. The Rhetorical Vision of Taike as Constructed in Media: An Analysis of the Generation Show. MA thesis, Fu Jen Catholic University. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW

23 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.15 Chiung, Wi-vun Tiffalo. 2007. Language, literacy, and nationalism: Taiwans orthographic transition from the perspective of Han sphere. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 28.2:102–115. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.18 Coupland, Nikolas. 2003. Sociolinguistic authenticities. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7.3:417–431. and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW


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