Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Culture CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 14 Culture CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon Chapter 14 discusses the role of culture and how culture affects consumer behavior.
2 Chapter ObjectivesWhen you finish this chapter, you should understand why:A culture is a society’s personality; it shapes our identities as individuals.Many of our consumption activities including holiday observances, grooming, and gift giving are rituals.We describe products as either sacred or profane, and it’s not unusual for some products to move back and forth between the two categories.
3 Chapter ObjectivesStyles act as a mirror to reflect underlying cultural conditions.Many modern marketers are reality engineers.New products, services, and ideas spread through a population. Different types of people are more or less likely to adopt them.Many people and organizations play a role in the fashion system that creates and communicates symbolic meaning to consumers.Fashions follow cycles.
4 Learning Objective 1: What is Culture A culture is a society’s personality; it shapes our identities as individuals.Includes values, ethics, and the material objects its members produceCulture is the accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditionsA consumer’s culture determines the overall priorities he or she attaches to different activities and products.A culture is a society’s personality; it shapes our identities as individuals.A society’s culture includes its values, ethics, and the material objects its members produce. It is the accumulation of shared meanings and traditions among members of a society. We describe a culture in terms of ecology (the way people adapt to their habitat), its social structure, and its ideology (including moral and aesthetic principles).
5 Understanding Culture Products can reflect underlying cultural processes of a particular period:The TV dinner for the United StatesCosmetics made of natural materials without animal testingDriving a hybrid car to preserve the earthTexting and drivingConsumers are more likely to want products that resonate with a culture’s priorities at any given time. The slide lists some examples of products that became successful because they reflected the dominant values at the time.
6 Learning Objective 3Many of our consumption activities including holiday observances, grooming, and gift giving are rituals.Common rituals: Grooming, gift giving, holiday, rites of passageMother’s DayFather’s DayBirthdayAnniversaryChristmas/HanukkahGraduationValentines DayEasterChinese New YearsWeddingEngagementBaby ShowerThinks of gift giving rituals specific to your culture?Now your religion?
7 RitualsRituals are sets of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and that tend to be repeated periodicallyMany consumer activities are ritualisticTrips to StarbucksSunday brunchHaircut every 6 weeksVirtually all consumers practice private grooming rituals, or ceremonies that help us transition from our private self to our public self or back again.Marketers try to get their products to become part of your weekly, daily ritualsWhen you hear the word, ritual, you may think of something formal and serious like the ritual of taking communion at church. In reality, consumers have many ritualistic activities. Having Sunday brunch, going daily to Starbucks, and tailgating before football games are all examples of commonplace rituals.Make a list of your private grooming rituals. Think of how many you have.
8 Gift Giving RitualWe buy (or make) the perfect object, remove the price tag, wrap and deliver the object.There is a gift-giving norm of reciprocity.Gift giving is a form of economic exchange in which the giver transfers and item of value to a recipient, who must reciprocate.Gift giving also involves a symbolic exchange.Gift giving ritual proceeds in three distinct stages:Gestation – giver procures an item to mark an event (structural/ prescribed by culture or emergent/personal and idiosyncratic).Presentation – process of gift exchange, recipient response and donor evaluation of the response.Reformulation – giver and receiver redefine the bond between them to reflect their new relationship after the exchange. This may trigger a negative evaluation if the gift is inadequate due to a violation of the reciprocity norm, which obliges people to return the gesture of a gift with one of equal value.
9 New gift giving rituals thought up by marketers A push present is a present a father gives to the mother to mark the occasion of her giving birth to their child. In practice the present may be given before or after the birth, or even in the delivery room. The giving of push presents has supposedly grown in the United States in recent years. Kindergarten graduation
10 Holidays are filled with rituals ChristmasHalloweenValentine’s DayThanksgivingEasterPassoverNew Years
11 For ReflectionExplain some of your own family holiday traditions. How do they affect your behavior as consumers?
12 Learning Objective 4We describe products as either sacred or profane, and it’s not unusual for some products to move back and forth between the two categories.Diamond ring for a wedding vs. a ring you buy yourself.
13 Sacred and Profane Consumption Sacred consumption: involves objects and events that are set apart from normal activities that are treated with respect or aweWedding dressProfane consumption: involves consumer objects and events that are ordinary and not specialDress to workWe can also differentiate between the sacred and profane when considering our cultural consumption patterns.Sacred consumption occurs when we set apart objects and events from normal activities and treat them with respect and awe.Note that sacred in this case does not mean religious.Profane consumption describes objects and events that are ordinary and everyday. They are not special like the sacred objects. For instance, a wedding dress is sacred but a dress for work is profane.
14 SacralizationSacralization occurs when ordinary objects, events, and even people take on sacred meaningContamination means that the objects we associate with sacred events become sacred in their own right.For instance, we use ornaments and lights to celebrate the sacred event of Christmas and these ornaments may become sacred.Collecting is the systematic acquisition of a particular object or set of objectsAnything can become sacred. Troy Aikman’s shoes sold for nearly $2,000 because fans had turned the shoes from the profane to the sacred.Contamination just means that the objects we associate with sacred events become sacred in their own right. For instance, we use ornaments and lights to celebrate the sacred event of Christmas and these ornaments may become sacred.Some people collect things that are sacred to them. Anything can be collected, it seems. Collecting involves a rational and an emotional component. Some researchers feel that collectors acquire their collections to gratify materialism in a socially acceptable way.This is different from hoarding, which is merely unsystematic collecting. Collecting typically involves both rational and emotional components
15 Domains of Sacred Consumption A society “sets apart” sacred places because they have religious or mystical significanceSacred places: religious/mystical and country heritage, such as Stonehenge, Mecca, Ground Zero in New York CitySacred people: celebrities, royaltySacred events: athletic events, religious ceremoniesA society “sets apart” sacred places because they have religious or mystical significance. Some profane places are endowed with sacred qualities.We can idolize sacred people as we set them apart from the masses.Public events can resemble sacred, religious ceremonies (e.g. sporting events, where athletes are central figures in a hero tale; tourism, which is often marked by souvenirs).
16 Sacred Souvenir Icons Local products (e.g., regional wine) Pictorial images (e.g., postcards, photos)‘Piece of the rock’ (e.g., seashells)Literal representations (e.g., mini icons)Markers (e.g., logo-oriented t-shirts)Tourism is an example of a sacred experience. People occupy sacred time and space when they travel on vacation. The desire of travelers to capture these sacred experiences in objects is the basis for the souvenir industry. In addition to personal mementos, there are several common types of sacred souvenir icons.
17 DesacralizationDesacralization: when a sacred item/symbol is removed from its special place or is duplicated in mass quantities (becomes profane)Religion has somewhat become desacralizedChristmas and Ramadan as secular, materialistic occasionsJust as objects can shift from the profane to the sacred, they can shift from the sacred to the profane. There are numerous examples including reproductions of sacred symbols like the American flag on a t-shirt or the image of the Mona Lisa.
18 For ReflectionGive examples of items that were once sacred but are now materialized and marketed. What are the implications in the shift in reverence to the items in question?
19 Objective 5: Pop Culture Commercial culture based on popular taste.Pop culture, short for popular culture, describes the lifestyle and tastes of the majority of mostly younger people.Music by people like Britney Spears and Hillary Duff are examples of pop culture, as is emo and prep.Pop culture changes with the youth of the world.
20 Popular CultureStyles act as a mirror to reflect underlying cultural conditions.Urban fashion is very popular even though inner-city teens represent only 8% of all people in that age group and have incomes significantly lower than their white suburban counterparts.It is common for mainstream culture to modify symbols from subcultures for a larger audience to consume.
21 12 Pop Culture Phenomenons That Were So 2012 4. The Hunger Games1. Call Me Maybe5. Memes and Gifs2. Instagram6. Fifty Shades of Grey3. Nail Art
22 7. YOLO10. The End of the World8. ShawarmaGangnam Style9. Olympic Fever
23 Fashion and Pop Culture Characteristics of fashion and popular culture include:Styles reflect more fundamental societal trends (politics and social conditions)A style begins as a unique statement by a small group and spreadsStyles originate as interplay between deliberate inventions from designers and businesspeople and spontaneous actions by consumers.Cultural products travel widely.Influential people in the media play a significant role in deciding which will succeed.Most styles wear out and people look for new ways to express themselves.When a style becomes obsolete, others replace it.
24 Retro Nerd Glasses Harold Lloyd popularized in 1917 Teddy roosevent went rimless In
26 Culture Production System A culture production system is the set of individuals and organizations that create and market a cultural productIt has three major subsystemsCreative subsystem—responsible for generating new symbols and/or products.Managerial subsystem—responsible for selecting, making tangible, mass producing, and managing the distribution of new symbols and/or products.Communications subsystem—responsible for giving meaning to the new product and providing it with a symbolic set of attributes that are communicated to consumers.No single person or company can create popular culture. Instead, many people and organizations contribute to each new trend. A culture production system (CPS) is this set of people and organizations who create cultural meaning. The system has three major subsystems. The creative subsystem generates new symbols and products. The managerial subsystem selects, makes, produces, and manages the distribution of new symbols and producA culture production system has three major subsystems:Creative subsystem—responsible for generating new symbols and/or products.Managerial subsystem—responsible for selecting, making tangible, mass producing, and managing the distribution of new symbols and/or products.Communications subsystem—responsible for giving meaning to the new product and providing it with a symbolic set of attributes that are communicated to consumers.ts. A communications subsystem gives meaning to the new product and provide it with a symbolic set of attributes.
27 Product Placement and Branded Entertainment Insertion of specific products and use of brand names in movie/TV scripts.Directors incorporate branded props for realism.Is product placement a positive or negative when it comes to consumer decision-making?The use of branded products in film is an old practice but it has renewed attention as brands pay large sums to be included in popular programming. Sometimes the product placement is free because the director wants to use the branded prop for realism. Other times, the placement comes with a fee. The practice is called branded entertainment sometimes because the brands may sponsor the program (like American Idol). Some researchers claim that product placement helps consumers to make decisions because consumers are then familiar with the brands when they shop. However, others say that placements can be a negative influence on consumer decisions if they are not congruent with the plot. In other words, the placement has to make sense in the minds of consumers in order to be effective.
28 AdvergamingAdvergaming refers to online games merged with interactive advertisementsAdvertisers gain many benefits with advergamesPlinking is the act of embedding a product in a videoMany brands have used advergaming including Axe, Burger King, and Mini Cooper. The games keep the attention of players longer than typical advertising. They let marketers target specific types of consumers. Marketers can tailor the nature of the game and the products in it to the profiles of different users. The format gives advertisers a great deal of flexibility. Lastly, the games enable marketers to track exposure to advertising in the games.
29 Learning Objective 8New products, services, and ideas spread through a population. Different types of people are more or less likely to adopt them.
30 The Diffusion of Innovations Innovation: any product that consumers perceive to be newNew manufacturing techniqueNew product variationNew way to deliver productNew way to package productDiffusion of innovationSuccessful innovations spread through the population at various ratesThe diffusion of innovation refers to the process whereby a new product, service, or idea spreads through a population. An innovation is any product or service that consumers perceive to be new. Marketers may need to encourage adoption of new products.
31 Behavioral Demands of Innovations Continuous innovationEvolutionary rather than revolutionaryDynamically continuous innovationMore pronounced change to existing productDiscontinuous innovationCreates major changes in the way we liveWe categorize innovations by the degree to which they demand adopters to change their behavior. A continuous innovation is a modification of an existing product such as when Levi’s promotes a new cut of jeans. The company makes a small change to an existing product. Most product innovations are of this type. When a consumer adopts this kind of new product, she only has to make minor changes in her habits. A dynamically continuous innovation is a significant change to an existing product. A discontinuous innovation creates really big changes in the way we live. Major inventions such as the airplane, the car, the computer, and the television all changed modern lifestyles.
32 Prerequisites for Successful Adoption CompatibilityInnovation should be compatible with consumers’ lifestylesTrialabilityPeople are more likely to adopt an innovation if they can experiment with it prior to purchaseComplexityA product that is easy to understand will be chosen over competitorsObservabilityInnovations that are easily observable are more likely to spreadA successful innovation, no matter how much we have to change in order to adopt it, should possess certain attributes. To the extent that the product innovation meets these five criteria, it will be adopted.RelativeAdvantageProduct should offer relative advantage over other alternatives
34 Learning Objective 9Many people and organizations play a role in the fashion system that creates and communicates symbolic meaning to consumers.
35 The Fashion SystemThe fashion system includes all those people and organizations involved in creating symbolic meanings and transferring these meanings to cultural goodsFashion is codeFashion is context-dependentFashion is undercodedAlthough we might think of fashion as clothing, it really includes all types of cultural phenomena including music, art, architecture, and science. We can think of fashion as a code or a language that helps us to decipher meaning. Unlike language, though, fashion is context-dependent. Different consumers can interpret the same style differently. Fashion products are undercoded too. That means that there is no one precise meaning but rather potentially different meanings for each person perceiving the fashion.
36 Behavioral Science Perspectives and Models of Fashion PsychologicalEconomicSociologicalMedicalThe meanings we give products reflect the underlying cultural categories that correspond to the basic ways we characterize the world. Our culture distinguishes between different times of day, between leisure and work, and between genders.Fashion is very complex and operates on many levels. It can affect us as a society and as an individual. Psychological factors can help us to explain what motivates us to be fashionable. Economists approach fashion in terms of supply and demand. The sociological perspective focuses on a subculture’s adoption of a fashion. The trickle-down theory states that there are two conflicting forces that drive fashion change. First, subordinate groups adopt the status symbols of the groups above them as they attempt to climb up the ladder of social mobility. Dominant styles originate with the upper classes and trickle down to those below. Meme theory explains how something becomes popular seemingly all of a sudden. A meme is an idea or product that enters the consciousness of people over time. Memes spread among consumers in a geometric progression just as a virus starts off small and steadily infects increasing numbers of people until it becomes an epidemic.
37 Motives and Psychological Models of Fashion ConformityDesire for variety seekingNeed to express personal creativitySexual attractionThere are many motives for fashion. Poplar motives include conformity; desire for variety seeking; the need to express personal creativity; and sexual attraction.
39 Fashion Life Cycle Example Introduction stage: small number of music innovators hear a songAcceptance stage: song enjoys increased visibilityRegression stage: song reaches stage of social saturation as it becomes overplayedThis slide explains the three stages in the overall fashion life cycle. A classic fashion is one with an extremely long acceptance cycle. A fad is one with a very short cycle.
40 For ReflectionWhat is and what should be the role of fashion in our society? How important is it for people to be in style? What are the pros and cons of keeping up with the latest fashions?
41 Chapter Summary A culture is a society’s personality. Myths are stories that express a culture’s values.Many of our consumption activities include rituals associated with holidays, grooming, rites of passage, and other events.We’ve reviewed many concepts in this chapter. The key points are noted on the slide.
42 Chapter SummaryProducts may be sacred or profane and some may shift between the two categories.Styles are like a mirror that reflect culture.We can distinguish between high and low forms of culture.Marketers are also reality engineers.We’ve reviewed many concepts in this chapter. The key points are noted on the slide.
43 Chapter SummaryNew products spread through the population. Certain characteristics make it more likely that they will be adopted.The fashion system creates and communicates symbolic meaning for consumers.Fashion follows cycles.We’ve reviewed many concepts in this chapter. The key points are noted on the slide.14-43