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Teaching Argumentative Writing Using the Common Core State Standards David Pook Susan Pimentel.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching Argumentative Writing Using the Common Core State Standards David Pook Susan Pimentel."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching Argumentative Writing Using the Common Core State Standards David Pook Susan Pimentel

2 Why Argumentative Writing? The CCSS incorporates several fundamental shifts that highlight the need for teaching argumentative writing: greater reliance on informational texts emphasis on writing to texts and extracting evidence an argumentative writing anchor standard In addition, the next generation of assessments will likely move in the direction of argumentative writing: responding to complex texts vs. de-contextualized prompts marshalling arguments vs. writing narratives

3 Argumentative Writing Anchor Standard CCR Anchor Standard for Writing Arguments: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

4 Decoding the Anchor Standard CCR Anchor Standard #1 for Writing: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Create a reading of the standard:

5 Decoding the Anchor Standard CCR Anchor Standard #1 for Writing: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. One reading of the standard: Argumentative writing analyzes complex texts to support a thesis in an organized fashion using relevant evidence and sufficient reasoning.

6 Identifying Instructional Needs Teachers need guidance in selecting rich materials ripe for analysis & teaching students how to generate theses, structure argumentative essays, select pertinent evidence, and proving theses with reasons. Argumentative writing analyzes complex texts to support a thesis in an organized fashion using relevant evidence and sufficient reasoning.

7 Grade Level Standards Grade-specific end-of-year expectations Cumulative progression of skills and understandings Skills and their application are the focus of instruction

8 Progression Chart for Standards Grade-specific end-of- year expectations Cumulative progression of skills and understandings Skills and their application are the focus of instruction

9 Focusing on Grade 6 Grade-specific end-of- year expectations Cumulative progression of skills and understandings Skills and their application are the focus of instruction

10 Unpack Standard W.6.1 write argumentsArgumentative writing analyzes complex texts to support a thesis in an organized fashion using relevant evidence and sufficient reasoning

11 Standard W.6.1 Unpacked write arguments using credible sources support claim(s) organize the reasons and evidence… clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons relevant evidence clear reasons Argumentative writing analyzes complex texts to support a thesis in an organized fashion using relevant evidence and sufficient reasoning

12 Grade 6 Argumentative Writing Rubric

13 Identifying Instructional Needs Teachers need guidance in selecting rich materials ripe for analysis & teaching students how to generate theses, structure argumentative essays, select pertinent evidence, and proving theses with reasons. Argumentative writing analyzes complex texts to support a thesis in an organized fashion using relevant evidence and sufficient reasoning.

14 Selecting the Text

15 analyzes complex text using credible sources

16 Identifying Instructional Needs Teachers need guidance in selecting rich materials ripe for analysis & teaching students how to generate theses, structure argumentative essays, select pertinent evidence, and proving theses with reasons Argumentative writing analyzes complex texts to support a thesis in an organized fashion using relevant evidence and sufficient reasoning

17 Generating Evidence for Theses I have approached the teaching of argument from the examination of data as a first step… the process of working through an argument is the process of inquiry. At its beginning is the examination of data, not the invention of a thesis statement in a vacuum. - George Hillocks Jr. (pg. xxii)

18 Employing Close Reading Asks text dependent questions that require carefully analyzing the text for evidence Offers questions that build upon each other to ensure students follow the line of argument Requires students to demonstrate understanding via writing

19 Close Reading Exemplar Template

20 Text Dependent Questions Look at the role played by individual words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs Ask how meaning can be altered by changing key words and why an author may have chosen one word over another Examine how changes in the direction of an argument or explanation are achieved and possible reasons for the change Analyze paragraphs on a sentence by sentence basis and sentences on a word by word basis Consider what the text leaves uncertain Question why authors choose to begin and end when they do Note and assess patterns of writing Evaluate each argument in persuasive text, each detail in informational text, and observe how these build to a whole

21 Close Reading Exemplar

22 Identifying Instructional Needs Teachers need guidance in selecting rich materials ripe for analysis & teaching students how to generate theses, structure argumentative essays, select pertinent evidence, and proving theses with reasons Argumentative writing analyzes complex texts to support a thesis in an organized fashion using relevant evidence and sufficient reasoning

23 Generating Theses Using Burkes Pentad What was done? When and where was it done? Who did it? How was it done? Why was it done? Juxtapose the why question against the others to create a thesis question:

24 Generating Theses Using Burkes Pentad What was done? When and where was it done? Who did it? How was it done? Why was it done? Juxtapose the why question against the others to create a thesis question: Why was Marian Andersons concert on the Mall in Washington an important event in the struggle for civil rights?

25 Identifying Instructional Needs Teachers need guidance in selecting rich materials ripe for analysis & teaching students how to generate theses, structure argumentative essays, select pertinent evidence, and proving theses with reasons Argumentative writing analyzes complex texts to support a thesis in an organized fashion using relevant evidence and sufficient reasoning

26 Using the Exemplar to Inform Structure

27 Structuring the Essay The noted singer Marian Anderson was not permitted to perform in Constitution Hall because of her race. Influential people helped relocate the concert to the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. Many people came to the concert despite the weather to show their support for racial equality. clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons

28 Identifying Instructional Needs Teachers need guidance in selecting rich materials ripe for analysis & teaching students how to generate theses, structure argumentative essays, select pertinent evidence, and proving theses with reasons Argumentative writing analyzes complex texts to support a thesis in an organized fashion using relevant evidence and sufficient reasoning

29 The Problem with Evidence In my experience and in my research, teenagers see no reason to question or substantiate claims in any context… test makers do not know what constitutes evidence any more than our youngsters do. - George Hillocks Jr., pg.xx-xxi

30 Using Exemplar to Select Relevant Evidence The noted singer Marian Anderson was not permitted to perform in Constitution Hall because of her race one of the great voices of the time performed for many heads of state as well as the President African-Americans were not allowed to perform there Black artists… [b]arred from Constitution Hall

31 Selecting Relevant Evidence Influential people helped relocate the concert to the steps of the Lincoln Memorial Many people came to the concert despite the weather to show their support for racial equality

32 Selecting Relevant Evidence Influential people helped relocate the concert to the steps of the Lincoln Memorial DARs ban had caused an angry controversy and set the stage for a historic event; intervention of influential politicians relocated the concert to the Mall; Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes introduced her; open-air concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial; the great marble monument; massive appropriate concert space Many people came to the concert despite the weather to show their support for racial equality the streets leading to the Mall in Washington, D.C., were jammed with thousands of people; a huge turnout; estimated 75,000 people; cold and threatening weather; chilly Easter Sunday; demonstrate their support for racial justice; struggle for civil rights; profound hush

33 Identifying Instructional Needs Teachers need guidance in selecting rich materials ripe for analysis & teaching students how to generate theses, structure argumentative essays, select pertinent evidence, and proving theses with reasons Argumentative writing analyzes complex texts to support a thesis in an organized fashion using relevant evidence and sufficient reasoning

34 Offering Clear Reasons one of the great voices of the time performed for many heads of state as well as the President African-Americans were not allowed to perform there Black artists… [b]arred from Constitution Hall The noted singer Marian Anderson was not permitted to perform in Constitution Hall because of her race

35 Offering Clear Reasons Justification for Anderson being a noted singer Why Anderson was not permitted to perform one of the great voices of the time performed for many heads of state as well as the President African-Americans were not allowed to perform there Black artists… [b]arred from Constitution Hall The noted singer Marian Anderson was not permitted to perform in Constitution Hall because of her race

36 Offering Clear Reasons thousands of people huge turnout an estimated 75,000 people cold and threatening weather chilly Easter Sunday demonstrate their support for racial justice struggle for civil rights profound hush Many people came to the concert despite the weather to show their support for racial equality

37 Using Exemplars to Meet Instructional Needs Close reading exemplars of complex texts teach students how to generate theses, structure argumentative essays, select pertinent evidence, and prove theses with reasons

38 Bringing to Scale California researchers in the early nineteen-eighties conducted a five-year study of teacher-skill development in eighty schools, and noticed something interesting. Workshops led teachers to use new skills in the classroom only ten per cent of the time. Even when a practice session with demonstrations and personal feedback was added, fewer than twenty per cent made the change. But when coaching was introducedwhen a colleague watched them try the new skills in their own classroom and provided suggestionsadoption rates passed ninety per cent. A spate of small randomized trials confirmed the effect. Coached teachers were more effective, and their students did better on tests. - Atul Gawande, Personal Best

39 Questions & Comments


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