2 Agenda: Benefits of DUMO Algacleaner. Applications. Cases. Ultrasound technology.The problem with algae.Algae and biofilm.Research agreements.Algae destruction and inhibition.Research: Labs and field tests.DUMO Algacleaner.2
3 1. Benefits of DUMO Algacleaner Controls and prevents the emergence and growth of algae and biofilm.Avoid chemical biocidesLow power consumption. Available solar energy.Application of several ultrasonic frequencies for different algae species.Easy installation and maintenance.Safe for humans, animals and plants.
4 2. Applications Ponds Irrigation Friendly for fish and waterplants. Easy to install and maintain.IrrigationPrevents clogging of filters.No chemicals are necessary.
5 2. Applications Lakes and reservoirs Fish-farms Solar system available.Optimum installation of multiple devices covers efficiently large surfaces.Fish-farmsSafe for animals.Controls algae, biofilm and pathogens.
6 2. Applications Swimming-pools Cooling towers Reduces chlorine doses. Eliminates biofilm.Cooling towersPrevents biofilm and pathogens.Reduces chemical treatments.
7 3. Cases: IrrigationThe water that fills the irrigation pond comes from a channel that adds a lot of slime and nutrients, which increase aggressive algae bloom in summer."We continually had the filters clogged by algae, and this was a real problem for drip irrigation that we tried to avoid it even with chemical biocides. This was finally resolved with the installation of DUMO Algacleaner “.Christophe BouchetProduction ManagerPrimor Fruit S.A., San José FarmSeville, Spain
8 3. Cases: Irrigation“After six months, the water is still clean and without algae. I am very happy with this device that avoid any chemical addition as copper sulphate. It is more economical and, of course, ecological.”Alexandre AdnotOwner, Los Algodonales FarmAlcalá del Río, Spain
9 3. Cases: Ornamental lake "... The lake water has remained in perfect condition, without algal blooms, loss of transparency or odor formation, demonstrating a good performance of the installed equipment and the effectiveness of ultrasound treatment.“Luis PiñanaArea Manager, Acciona AguaMadrid, Spain
10 4. Cases: Singular place“The eight ultrasonic units installed in the ornamental channel -horseshoe shaped- of the emblematic Plaza de España in Seville, have succeeded in eradicating the problem of algae and odors.”Antonio DíazOperations Manager, EMASESASeville, Spain
11 4. Cases: Water treatment “The equipment Algacleaner has prevented the formation of a higher type of algae (Lemna) that floats on the surface of the ponds when the water has good quality.“Site: Ulldecona WWTPPedro PoloCommercial Director, Acciona AguaBarcelona, SpainBefore and after
12 4. Ultrasound technology Sound is a wave where excited magnitude is pressure.Ultrasounds are a kind of sonic waves which frequencies are over 20 kHz (maximum limit detectable by the humans).As sound, ultrasounds need a medium for propagation. In the case of DUMO Algacleaner it is the water.Sound waves are 5.5 times faster in water than in air.UltrasoundAcousticInfrasound20 Hz20 kHz
13 4. Ultrasound technology Ultrasound is a pressure wave that propagates through a medium.Successive pressures, (+) and (-), mean that the particles move and propagate the wave.The amplitude of the wave (A) determines the power (P), (P = E/t, E = mω2A2/2) and especially the intensity I (P/S), measured in W/cm2.Sound or sonic pressureSound is a wave of positive and negative pressures
14 5. Ultrasound technology: DUMO DUMO Algacleaner offers a great output power, resulting in microcavitation in small closed areas (as an aquarium).However, thanks to its design, cavitation in open areas disappears and this great power wave passes to get coupled and adapted, penetrating the water, reducing losses and increasing its reaching distance and destructive power.Ultrasound can eliminate algae without cavitation but only if there is a powerful ultrasonic pressure source.Additionally to power, other parameters such as frequency, shape and timing of the pulses are necessary.
15 4. Ultrasound technology: DUMO The appropriate ultrasonic wave propagation affects only algae, not higher plants or vertebrates.Algae spores and their germination are dramatically reduced.Bacteria show similar behaviour to algae (disintegration and / or inhibition).All those water surfaces under the sonication area, will be environmentally controlled, and the problem caused by algae and other microorganisms, resolved.
16 4. Ultrasound technology: Effects Source of pressure which may act on a gas vesicle inside a protasyotic cell:(a) atmospheric pressure;(h) hydrostatic pressure due to depth;(t) cell turgor pressure;(c) pressure from surface tension at the cell wall, and over-pressure caused by ultrasonic pulses;(s) pressure from surface tension at the gas vesicle wall and over-stress due to intracellular over pressure;(g) pressure of the vacuole gas.Diagram based on reference 108 of The Royal Society (London), completed with our own research.
17 5. The problem with algaeThere are algae in all aquatic environments, and even humid terrestrial ones.Microscopic algae are common in coasts, reservoirs, irrigation ponds and channels, ponds, swimming-pools, water tanks and cooling towers.If algal concentration grows rapidly (bloom), water color turns to green, yellow or red.These blooms are usually the result of an excess of nutrients in the water (eutrophication).Filamentous green algaeDiatom algae
18 5. The problem with algae Adverse effects Many facilities are severely compromised (pumps, pipes, sprinklers, etc).Odors occur because of bacteria.The resulting decrease in dissolved oxygen in water increases the mortality of fish and insects.Some types of algae produce neurotoxins, a very harmful biological impact on the environment.Health problems in swimming-pools, contaminated cooling towers, etc.Algal bloom
19 6. Algae and biofilmThe algae are susceptible to get damaged when it is vibrated at a critical frequency.The easiest species to remove are the blue-green bacteria types, generally known as cyanobacteria.The gas vacuole contains many small cylindrical vesicles 75 x 300 nm in size, often in groups.The wall of the gas vacuole, which is permeable to gases but water, is about 2 nm thick.These vacuoles are found primarily in plankton cyanobacteria, and their main purpose is to float or sink to get the optimum amount of nutrients and solar energy.Some fungi and archaea bacteria have gas vesicles and are also affected by ultrasound.
20 Micrograph by H. S. Pankratz). Magnification x31,500 6. Algae and biofilmMicrograph by H. S. Pankratz). Magnification x31,500Transverse section of a dividing cell of the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp., showing hexagonal stacking of the cylindrical gas vesicles.
21 7. Research agreementsCooperation agreements with European and local universities.New DUMO Algacleaner has been developed, supported and verified by different Physics and Biological authorities.
22 8. Algae destructionPhytoplankton chlorophyll, which allows it to capture solar energy, is a basic parameter to determine the active biomass.The application of ultrasounds reduces the density of filaments and increases the cell disruption.
23 8. Algae destructionThe destruction of the cells causes the release of chlorophyll to the medium.The analysis shows a decrease in mg of chlorophyll A, and in the number of cells.
24 8. Algae inhibitionDr. Liang Gao, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia, USADr. Martin Huss, Department of Biological Sciences, Arkansas State University, USAAlgae, fungi, protozoa and other eukaryotic, aquatic microorganisms reproduces by a mitosis process.Chromosomes, the carriers of the DNA, settle in the centre of the cell and then splits and moves to opposite sides. The cell membrane then constricts and separates the mother cell into two daughter cells.This phase, called anaphase, is mediated by fibres known as microtubules, which assemble from the sides to the centre of the chromosomes.Any disturbance whatsoever destabilize the microtubule chain, will prevent cells from multiplying.This is how the ultrasonic pulses disrupt the polymerization of the microtubules, thereby stemming cellular growth.
25 8. Algae inhibitionChlorophyll A naturally increases without the application of US.When DUMO Algacleaner is applied to, chlorophyll A density not only maintains but reduces in medium volume.
26 9. Research: LabsThe Biotechnology Department of Toscano Medioambiente, after several years of rigorous experiments, has developed the technology behind DUMO Algacleaner.This technology, thanks to the optimal production of ultrasonic waves, has come to be an innovative technique for efficient control of algae blooms.
27 9. Research: LabsTests show, according to the reports from Bioindication Group of the University of Seville, the breaking of filaments and the destruction of algae cells.Withouth sonication2 min. sonication5 min. sonication
35 10. DUMO Algacleaner: Highlights Effectiveness against algaeOur equipments emit different frequencies, harmonic among them, creating waves of different length. This effect generates effective wavefronts against algae.Water coupling (matching)Our transducer incorporates a special elastomer that adapts the transmitter to the water density, resulting in a more effective penetration of ultrasonic waves (reaches longer distance and more powerful).Power released to the medium (acoustic pressure).Power is important because not only the pulses go further, but because they come strongly enough to damage and inhibit algae growth.A proof of our effectiveness is microcavitation on the precise threshold, that pulses achieve to penetrate the water.Electric powerMean maximal peak. Because it is a system emitter of pulses, the effective average power is four times smaller.DUMO AlgacleanerThis is the system with the best balance among these parameters (Signal / Coupling / Pressure / Power) in the market.
36 DUMO Ultrasonic Technology More solutions for water and biosolidsA full range of OEM products references