3 InstructionsIllustrate the details highlighted in red using images from the Internet. Present the images in any format.Use ONLY paintings and illustrations from the period, or photographs of the actual garments. Museum websites such as the Victoria and Albert (http://www.vam.ac.uk/page/f/fashion/) are particularly good.Include the citation for each imageLabel each photo with the period or yearWrite a sentence or two about what the image demonstrates.
4 Women’s clothes were characterized by a high waistline Ancient EgyptiansThe King controlled everything, even clothesClothing style did not determine the position as much as the cloth that was used to make it. For example the pharaoh’s clothes were made from fine linen enriched with gold threadFabrics used were linen, cotton, wool and leatherBecause of the heat clothing was roomy, –Women’s clothes were characterized by a high waistlineman’s loin clothShoes were for indoor wear onlyWomen used make-up to lighten their skin. Men used it to underline their eyes and enhance their eyebrowsColorsGreen – life, youthYellow – gold, flesh of the godsBlack – only in wigsWhite – most common color, happiness
5 Ancient Greece Ancient Rome Clothes were basic and simple. Most originated from a rectangular piece of cloth.Minimal sewing. Clothes were wrapped or drapedChiton – tunic, wool rectangle draped over the body. Left arm was covered, right arm was not. The length determined status and useWool and linen were most common fabricsAncient RomeTunic with cloak over it – color, shape and decoration of these items denoted social statusOnly citizens could wear toga’s, slaves could notBecause the empire was so vast there were a wide range of climates in the empire, this was the first time you see seasonal dressing
6 Byzantine Middle Ages Only royalty could wear purple Typical styles had heavy layers and long billowing tunicsThese were worn by both sexes and made their shape indistinguishablemen wore pantsDomestically produced silk was introducedMiddle AgesThe major introduction from the East was using buttons to fasten clothingFashion was still not a consideration for most people.Dress served a functional purpose or designated a rank or position.Wool the most important fabric of the middle agesShoe toes were up to 18” long, a law set lengths to specified classesWomen’s clothes had a slightly protruding belly
7 The Renaissance Velvet was first used Velvet was first usedClothes were regarded as an investment. Time was spent on upkeep and repair.Detachable sleeves –affordable way to change the style of a garment (predated the modern custom of buying skirts and blouses – mix and match)Fans and handkerchiefs – brought to the new world by Columbus when he went to China and the new worldSumptuary laws (Poor people could not have handkerchiefs by law)Fabric merchants were prominent citizensThe beauty of the fabric was appreciated. Rich fabric was left unadornedWool, linen and cotton were the main fabricsEngland – woolGermany/Ireland – linenSpain/Italy – velvet, damask, brocade, satin
8 The Baroque Period Europe (1600-1750) Costume Women’s Men’s – Textiles Emergence of the new middle class accelerated the pace of fashion. The middle class had more money and adopted styles of the upper class. The upper class then sought new styles to distinguish themselves from the masses.The silhouette became more natural, comfort and individual personality began to play a role.En suite – unlike the mix and match of the 16th Century, many pieces from the same fabric and could be worn simultaneouslyWomen’sDécolletage – plunging necklineMen’s –CavalierPersian style – 3 pc suit (coat, waistcoat and breeches). Formed the foundation of modern men’s formal attireTextilesClothing for men’s/women’s/kid’s all from the same materialTextiles were appreciated for themselves
9 Eighteenth Century Rococo – sumptuous style Global textile trade thrived, ribbons, laces, ruffles, ruching, silk flowersForcing commoners (“the Third Estate”) to wear dark, dreary clothes was something that was a prompting factor in the French RevolutionWomen – even lower class women were beginning to be able to be independentTheir Silhouette was based on panniersEventually their discomfort (and difficulty in movement) made them outmodedCul de Paris – a tiny pillow that accentuates the size of a women’s backsideThe Revolution assisted fashion’s road to informality. Empire styles did away with clothes made of silk, velvet and brocade. It liberated women from corsets, panniers and tall powdered wigsAusterity began to dominate women’s fashion. In the boutiques shops selling RTW opened. Fashion was now established by the wishes of the bourgeoisie not wanting to associate with the ancient regimeMen’s clothingWaistcoat and breeches – decorative element of a man’s wardrobe, damask, satin or velvet, intricate embroidery, gold/silver buttonsLace collared shirt (jabot) underneath, collar was tied like a scarfMen wore corsets and jacketFlared into a semicircle at the hips
10 TextilesMechanized inventions played a key role – cotton/wool manufacturingFlying shuttle, knitting machines1793 – Cotton ginSeparated fiber from seed, made cotton big industry in the US, industry upon which American colonies were built.Techniques for dying and printing also developed.Other factsMake up and grooming – washing was not common. Make up was worn to conceal dirty skin. Disguised body odor with perfumeWigs – hair was powdered for men and womenCorset – status symbol because it prevented over exertion. It showed you were a member of the leisured classFashion magazines
11 Nineteenth CenturyClothing industry – previously called the “needle trade”1846 – sewing machine invented by SingerPatterns nextKnitting machinesDepartment Store inventedPreviously items were only available in small shops and stalls. Clothes that were kept in locked glass were now out in the open. They were in full view for the customer to look at and purchase. Browsing was encouraged to tempt impulse buys.Bargaining (the market place practice) was replaced by fixed pricesWomenAfter domestic work, the textile industry was the highest employer of women. The conditions were hard; they worked 12 –14 hours a day, 6-7days a week.The wages were so low women turned to prostitutionWomen and children worked the same hoursUnsafe, unheated, unventilated and ill lit.MenBeau Brummell - the original dandy. Jettisoned all that was excessiveRuffles, lace and white silk were replaced by superbly fitting sober clothesDandyism got men cleaner, plainer and more practical
12 20th Century. Liberalization – women’s position changed Opening of the Eastern Block and China led to increased demand for Western Style and goodsEarly 20th CenturyPaul Poiret (1879 – 1944)Thought the corset altered the silhouette so he developed the bra.During shows he performed by standing on platform with a pair of scissors, a box of pins and a roll of material. He made a dress from that in minutesMarie Vionett – did not sketch, used 2’ high modelsShe started using biasCoco Chanel (1883 – 1971)“Total look” versus shape. Individual items of clothing are not as important as what they are accessorized, worn with and how they are wornNew Look/Dior (1905 – 19570Curvaceous silhouetteUnstructured yet tailored clothesDied suddenly in 195721 year old Yves St Laurent was elevated to designer in chiefHe was fired 2 years later and replaced by John GallainoSt. Laurent – genderless daytime pant suitPants on women became the rageFashion and pop music were used to demonstrate youthful dissatisfaction with the state of society (beat nick, hippies, punk, grunge)
13 19th Century Dress Assignment 1. Select a female character from a 19th century novel, and create a detailed sketch of her with strict historical accuracy. You will need to research the fashion of the period in order to complete this assignment.The fashion can be either daytime or evening and must include all aspects of her appearance including hair, fabric, jewelry and all other accessories, dress silhouette, seaming, shoes or boots (and undergarments) if visible.2. Provide two historical proofs (images) to explain your costume choices and why they are appropriate. Your visual proofs must be from two different research sources (e.g., books on historical costume; if using Internet—ONLY museum collections).
14 Costume DramaWatch a costume drama that features 19th century women’s fashions. Select three outfits from the movie and write a review of the historical accuracy of each of these costumes using accurate terms and vocabulary.2. Provide one historical proof (image) for each costume selected to explain help support your opinion on the historical accuracy of the fashion. Your visual proofs must be from at least two different research sources (e.g., books on historical costume; if using Internet—ONLY museum collections).