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Chapter 14 Culture 14-1 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Culture 14-1 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Culture 14-1 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon

2 14-2 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: 1. A culture is a societys personality; it shapes our identities as individuals. 2. Myths are stories that express a cultures values, and in modern times marketing messages convey these values.

3 14-3 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives (continued) 3. Many of our consumption activities including holiday observances, grooming, and gift giving are rituals. 4. We describe products as either sacred or profane, and its not unusual for some products to move back and forth between the two categories.

4 14-4 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives 5. Styles act as a mirror to reflect underlying cultural conditions. 6. We distinguish between high and low culture. 7. Many modern marketers are reality engineers.

5 14-5 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives (continued) 8. New products, services, and ideas spread through a population. Different types of people are more or less likely to adopt them. 9. Many people and organizations play a role in the fashion system that creates and communicates symbolic meaning to consumers. 10. Fashions follow cycles.

6 Learning Objective 1 A culture is a societys personality; it shapes our identities as individuals Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

7 14-7 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall What is Culture? Culture is the accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions Culture is a societys personality

8 14-8 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Understanding Culture Products can reflect underlying cultural processes of a particular period: The TV dinner for the United States Cosmetics made of natural materials without animal testing Pastel carrying cases for condoms

9 14-9 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Functional Areas in a Cultural System Ecology Social structure Ideology

10 14-10 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall For Reflection If your culture were a person, how would you describe its personality traits? Now, select another culture youre familiar with. How would those personality traits differ from your own?

11 Learning Objective 2 Myths are stories that express a cultures values, and in modern times marketing messages convey these values Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

12 14-12 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Myths Myths are stories with symbolic elements that represent the shared emotions/ideals of a culture Story characteristics Conflict between opposing forces Outcome is moral guide for people Myth reduces anxiety by providing guidelines

13 14-13 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Functions of Myths Metaphysical Cosmological Sociological Psychological Help explain origins of existence Emphasize that all components of the universe are part of a single picture Maintain social order by authorizing a social code to be followed by members of a culture Provide models for personal conduct

14 14-14 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Myths Abound in Modern Popular Culture Myths are often found in comic books, movies, holidays, and commercials Monomyths: a myth that is common to many cultures (e.g., Spiderman and Superman) Many movies/commercials present characters and plot structures that follow mythic patterns

15 For Reflection Identify modern day myths that corporations create. How do they communicate these stories to consumers? Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

16 Learning Objective 3 Many of our consumption activities including holiday observances, grooming, and gift giving are rituals Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

17 14-17 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Rituals Rituals are sets of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and that tend to be repeated periodically Many consumer activities are ritualistic Trips to Starbucks Sunday brunch

18 Common Rituals Grooming Gift-giving Holiday Rites of passage Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

19 For Reflection Explain some of your own family holiday traditions. How do they affect your behavior as consumers? Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

20 Learning Objective 4 We describe products as either sacred or profane, and its not unusual for some products to move back and forth between the two categories Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

21 14-21 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Sacred and Profane Consumption Sacred consumption: involves objects and events that are set apart from normal activities that are treated with respect or awe Profane consumption: involves consumer objects and events that are ordinary and not special

22 14-22 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Sacralization Sacralization occurs when ordinary objects, events, and even people take on sacred meaning Objectification occurs when we attribute sacred qualities to mundane items, through processes like contamination Collecting is the systematic acquisition of a particular object or set of objects

23 14-23 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Domains of Sacred Consumption Sacred places: religious/mystical and country heritage, such as Stonehenge, Mecca, Ground Zero in New York City Sacred people: celebrities, royalty Sacred events: athletic events, religious ceremonies

24 14-24 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Sacred Souvenir Icons Local products (e.g., regional wine) Pictorial images (e.g., postcards, photos) Piece of the rock (e.g., seashells) Literal representations (e.g., mini icons) Markers (e.g., logo-oriented t-shirts)

25 14-25 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Desacralization Desacralization: when a sacred item/symbol is removed from its special place or is duplicated in mass quantities (becomes profane) Religion has somewhat become desacralized Christmas and Ramadan as secular, materialistic occasions

26 For Reflection Give examples of items that were once sacred but are now materialized and marketed. What are the implications in the shift in reverence to the items in question? Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

27 Learning Objective 5 Styles act as a mirror to reflect underlying cultural conditions Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

28 14-28 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Movement of Meaning

29 14-29 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Culture Production Process

30 14-30 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Culture Production System A culture production system is the set of individuals and organizations that create and market a cultural product It has three major subsystems Creative Managerial Communications

31 For Reflection How have cultural values influenced the items that you feel have value? Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

32 Learning Objective 6 We distinguish between high and low culture Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

33 14-33 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Where Does Culture Come From? Influence of inner-city teens Hip-hop/black urban culture Outsider heroes, anti-oppression messages, and alienation of blacks Flavor on the streets

34 14-34 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall High Culture and Popular Culture An art product is an object we admire for its beauty and our emotional response A craft product is admired because of the beauty with which it forms a function Mass culture creates products for a mass market

35 Learning Objective 7 Many modern marketers are reality engineers Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

36 14-36 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Product Placement and Branded Entertainment Insertion of specific products and use of brand names in movie/TV scripts. Directors incorporate branded props for realism. Is product placement a positive or negative when it comes to consumer decision-making?

37 14-37 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Advergaming Advergaming refers to online games merged with interactive advertisements Advertisers gain many benefits with advergames Plinking is the act of embedding a product in a video

38 Learning Objective 8 New products, services, and ideas spread through a population. Different types of people are more or less likely to adopt them Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

39 14-39 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Diffusion of Innovations Innovation: any product that consumers perceive to be new New manufacturing technique New product variation New way to deliver product New way to package product Diffusion of innovation Successful innovations spread through the population at various rates

40 14-40 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Types of Adopters

41 14-41 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Behavioral Demands of Innovations Continuous innovation Evolutionary rather than revolutionary Dynamically continuous innovation More pronounced change to existing product Discontinuous innovation Creates major changes in the way we live

42 14-42 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Prerequisites for Successful Adoption Compatibility Trialability Complexity Observability Innovation should be compatible with consumers lifestyles People are more likely to adopt an innovation if they can experiment with it prior to purchase A product that is easy to understand will be chosen over competitors Innovations that are easily observable are more likely to spread Relative Advantage Product should offer relative advantage over other alternatives

43 Learning Objective 9 Many people and organizations play a role in the fashion system that creates and communicates symbolic meaning to consumers Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

44 14-44 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Fashion System The fashion system includes all those people and organizations involved in creating symbolic meanings and transferring these meanings to cultural goods Fashion is code Fashion is context-dependent Fashion is undercoded

45 14-45 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Behavioral Science Perspectives and Models of Fashion Psychological Economic Sociological Medical

46 14-46 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Motives and Psychological Models of Fashion Conformity Desire for variety seeking Need to express personal creativity Sexual attraction

47 Learning Objective 10 Fashions follow cycles Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

48 14-48 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Fashion Life Cycle Example Introduction stage: small number of music innovators hear a song Acceptance stage: song enjoys increased visibility Regression stage: song reaches stage of social saturation as it becomes overplayed

49 14-49 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall For Reflection What is and what should be the role of fashion in our society? How important is it for people to be in style? What are the pros and cons of keeping up with the latest fashions?

50 14-50 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Summary A culture is a societys personality. Myths are stories that express a cultures values. Many of our consumption activities include rituals associated with holidays, grooming, rites of passage, and other events.

51 14-51 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Summary Products may be sacred or profane and some may shift between the two categories. Styles are like a mirror that reflect culture. We can distinguish between high and low forms of culture. Marketers are also reality engineers.

52 14-52 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Summary New products spread through the population. Certain characteristics make it more likely that they will be adopted. The fashion system creates and communicates symbolic meaning for consumers. Fashion follows cycles


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