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Laminar and Turbulent Flow
Reynolds Number (Re) Laminar Re 4000
Turbulence is significant in: conduction of heat (eddy conduction) diffusion of dissolved substances (eddy diffusion) viscosity (eddy viscosity)
Deep Water Wave
Water Movement in a Surface Wave
Shallow Water Waves
Whitecaps on Lake Michigan
Causes of Surface Currents Wind Change in atmospheric pressure Horizontal density gradients Influx of water
Surface Currents in Lake Erie
Rip Current in Lake Erie
Currents in a Stratified Lake Layers remain stable if the shearing force between them is low; Richardson number (Ri) remains higher than 0.25.
Coriolis Effect on water movement
Formation of a Seiche
Seiche on Lake Erie
Seiche traces from different parts of Lake Huron
Inflow and outflow in Galich Lake
Lake Sam Reyburn, TX
Richardson number = shearing force between layers From Fernandez and Imberger (2006)
Table 7-1 Velocity (cm/sec)SubstrateDiameter range (mm) 3-20Silt, mud, organic debris< Fine sand Coarse sand to fine gravel0.5 – Small - large gravel8 – Large cobbles to boulders>128
Movement of Water in a Stream Channel
Run and Riffle
Standing Wave in Stream
Standing waves on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon
Discharge and Gage Height
RiversReservoirsNatural Lakes Water-level Fluctuations Large, rapid, irregular; flooding Large, irregularSmall, stable InflowRunoff from surface irregular and seasonal; groundwater stable From river and tributaries; internal flows complex From low order streams, groundwater OutflowDischarge irregularHighly irregularStable; outflow shallow and groundwater Flushing RateRapid, unidirectional, horizontal Short, variable (weeks) Long, years
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Momentum Equations in a Fluid (PD) Pressure difference (Co) Coriolis Force (Fr) Friction Total Force acting on a body = mass times its acceleration (W)
Laminar flow Also known as streamline flow Occurs when the fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers The opposite of turbulent.
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