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Laminar and Turbulent Flow
Reynolds Number (Re) Laminar Re 4000
Turbulence is significant in: conduction of heat (eddy conduction) diffusion of dissolved substances (eddy diffusion) viscosity (eddy viscosity)
Deep Water Wave
Water Movement in a Surface Wave
Shallow Water Waves
Whitecaps on Lake Michigan
Causes of Surface Currents Wind Change in atmospheric pressure Horizontal density gradients Influx of water
Surface Currents in Lake Erie
Rip Current in Lake Erie
Currents in a Stratified Lake Layers remain stable if the shearing force between them is low; Richardson number (Ri) remains higher than 0.25.
Coriolis Effect on water movement
Formation of a Seiche
Seiche on Lake Erie
Seiche traces from different parts of Lake Huron
Inflow and outflow in Galich Lake
Lake Sam Reyburn, TX
Richardson number = shearing force between layers From Fernandez and Imberger (2006)
Table 7-1 Velocity (cm/sec)SubstrateDiameter range (mm) 3-20Silt, mud, organic debris<0.02 20-40Fine sand0.1 - 0.3 40-60Coarse sand to fine gravel0.5 – 8 60-120Small - large gravel8 – 64 120-200Large cobbles to boulders>128
Movement of Water in a Stream Channel
Run and Riffle
Standing Wave in Stream
Standing waves on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon
Discharge and Gage Height
RiversReservoirsNatural Lakes Water-level Fluctuations Large, rapid, irregular; flooding Large, irregularSmall, stable InflowRunoff from surface irregular and seasonal; groundwater stable From river and tributaries; internal flows complex From low order streams, groundwater OutflowDischarge irregularHighly irregularStable; outflow shallow and groundwater Flushing RateRapid, unidirectional, horizontal Short, variable (weeks) Long, years
Section 2: The Planetary Boundary Layer
JSSBIO1Huttula Lecture Set Sediment transport models.
For flow of 1 m/s in round-bottom channel of radius 1 m, what is the Reynold’s number? Is the flow laminar or turbulent? Re < 500 laminar Re > 2000 turbulent.
Erosion The transport of earth materials from one place to another.
HYDRAULICS ENGINEERING AGE 403
Boundary Layer Flow Describes the transport phenomena near the surface for the case of fluid flowing past a solid object.
..perhaps the hardest place to use Bernoulli’s equation (so don’t)
Chapter 10 Waves.
Water Movements. Transfer of wind energy to water Modified by gravity, basin morphometry and differential water densities to produce characteristic.
Pharos University ME 352 Fluid Mechanics II
Session 2, Unit 3 Atmospheric Thermodynamics
Direct numerical simulation study of a turbulent stably stratified air flow above the wavy water surface. O. A. Druzhinin, Y. I. Troitskaya Institute of.
Exploring Geology Chapter 16 Rivers and Streams
Rivers. Where Do Rivers Get Their Water? 466 Drainage Basin – provides water for the river. Drainage Basin – provides water for the river.
Flow over an Obstruction MECH 523 Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Presented by Srinivasan C Rasipuram.
Atmospheric Analysis Lecture 3.
0.1m 10 m 1 km Roughness Layer Surface Layer Planetary Boundary Layer Troposphere Stratosphere height The Atmospheric (or Planetary) Boundary Layer is.
The thermocline occurs deeper in large lakes because wind energy is transmitted to greater depths Wind energy increases with fetch In small lakes convection.
D A C B z = 20m z=4m Homework Problem A cylindrical vessel of height H = 20 m is filled with water of density to a height of 4m. What is the pressure at:
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