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Water Movements. Laminar and Turbulent Flow Reynolds Number (Re) Laminar Re 4000.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Movements. Laminar and Turbulent Flow Reynolds Number (Re) Laminar Re 4000."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Movements

2 Laminar and Turbulent Flow

3 Reynolds Number (Re) Laminar Re 4000

4 Turbulence is significant in: conduction of heat (eddy conduction) diffusion of dissolved substances (eddy diffusion) viscosity (eddy viscosity)

5 Surface Waves

6 Deep Water Wave

7 Water Movement in a Surface Wave

8 Shallow Water Waves

9 Fetch

10 Lake Thunderbird

11 Whitecaps on Lake Michigan

12 Langmuir Circulation

13 Causes of Surface Currents Wind Change in atmospheric pressure Horizontal density gradients Influx of water

14 Surface Currents in Lake Erie

15 Rip Current in Lake Erie

16 Currents in a Stratified Lake Layers remain stable if the shearing force between them is low; Richardson number (Ri) remains higher than 0.25.

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18 Coriolis Effect on water movement

19 Thermal Bars

20 Formation of a Seiche

21 Bimodal Seiche

22 Seiche on Lake Erie

23 Seiche traces from different parts of Lake Huron

24 Inflow and outflow in Galich Lake

25 Lake Sam Reyburn, TX

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27 Richardson number = shearing force between layers From Fernandez and Imberger (2006)

28 Table 7-1 Velocity (cm/sec)SubstrateDiameter range (mm) 3-20Silt, mud, organic debris< Fine sand Coarse sand to fine gravel0.5 – Small - large gravel8 – Large cobbles to boulders>128

29 Movement of Water in a Stream Channel

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31 Run and Riffle

32 Standing Wave in Stream

33 Standing waves on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon

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36 Discharge and Gage Height

37 RiversReservoirsNatural Lakes Water-level Fluctuations Large, rapid, irregular; flooding Large, irregularSmall, stable InflowRunoff from surface irregular and seasonal; groundwater stable From river and tributaries; internal flows complex From low order streams, groundwater OutflowDischarge irregularHighly irregularStable; outflow shallow and groundwater Flushing RateRapid, unidirectional, horizontal Short, variable (weeks) Long, years

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