2-3 Types of Retailers Retailers Use Different Retail Mixes -merchandise: variety (breadth) / assortment (depth) -services -store design, visual merchandising -location -pricing Infinite Variations Some combination of retail mixes satisfy the needs of significant segments and persist over time.
2-4 Merchandise Offering Variety (breadth of merchandise): wide vs. narrow - The number of merchandise categories Assortment (depth of merchandise): deep vs. shallow -the number of items in a category (SKUs)
2-5 Variety and Assortment of Kayaks in Different Retail Outlets
2-6 Characteristics of Food Retailers
2-7 Trends in Supermarket Retailing Competition from Discount Stores Changing Consumption Patterns Efficient Distribution Lower CostsLower Prices Time PressureEating Out MoreMeal Solutions
2-8 Save-A-Lot Save-A-Lots limited assortment format means that stores carry the most frequently purchased grocery items in the most popular size and variety The company carries high quality exclusive brands – many produced by the same manufacturers of leading name brands – and an assortment of nationally branded items. This allows Save-A-Lot to offer savings of up to 40% compared to conventional grocery stores – without asking shoppers to sacrifice quality.
2-9 Characteristics of General Merchandise Retailers
2-10 Three Tiers of Department Stores First Tier: Upscale, high fashion chains with exclusive designer merchandise and excellent customer service Nordstrom, Neiman Marcus, Saks Second Tier: Retailers sell more modestly priced merchandise with less customer service Macys Third Tier: Value oriented caters to more price conscious customer JCPenney, Sears, Kohls
2-11 Issues in Department Store Retailing Competition -Discount Stores on Price -Specialty Stores on Service, Depth of Assortment Lower Cost by Reducing Services (?) -Centralized Cash Wraps More Sales (?) -Customers Wait for Sale Focus on Apparel and Soft Home Develop Private Labels and Exclusive Brands
2-12 Issues in Discount Store Retailing Only Big Left Wal-Mart, Target Wal-Marts Dominance Differentiate Strategy Wal-Mart = Low Price and Good value Target = More Fashionable Apparel Competition from Category Specialists Toys-R-Us, Circuit City, Sports Authority
2-13 Issues in Specialty Store Retailing Mall-Based Apparel Retailers Decline in Mall Shopping and Apparel Sales -Lack of New Fashions -Less Interest in Fashion -Increased Price Consciousness Lifestyle Formats – Abercrombie and Fitch Hot Topics McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Andrew Resek, Photographer
2-14 Issues in Drug Store Retailing Consolidation – Walgreens, CVS, Rite-Aid Competition from Supermarkets, discount Stores and mail-in orders Evolution to a New Format -Stand Alone Sites with Drive Thru Windows -offering more frequent purchase food items Improved systems provide personalized service in the pharmacy
2-15 Category Specialists Deep and Narrow Assortments Destination Stores Category killers Low Price and Service Wholesaling to Business Customers and Retailing to Consumers Incredible Growth Bass Pro Shops
2-16 Category Specialists: Home Improvement Centers Home Depot and Lowes act as both: Retailer and Wholesaler Consumer Business
2-17 Issues in Extreme Value Retailing Focuses on Lower Income Consumers Names mostly imply good value not $1 price points Low Cost Location Limited Services One of the Fastest Growing Retail Segments Dollar Tree Family Dollar Dollar General 99 Cents Only Store
2-18 Off-Price Retailers Close-out retailers Offer an inconsistent assortment of brand name merchandise at low prices TJX companies (T.J. Maxx, Marshalls. HomeGoods) Ross Stores, Burlington Coat factory, Big Lots, Tuesday Morning
2-19 Types of Non-store Retailers
2-20 What are Amazon and eBay? – Merchandise to consumers. Provides website development and fulfillment services to other retailershttp://www.Amazon.com eBay – Acts as a mall or other shopping center providing a place for buyers and sellers to meet Don Farrall/Getty Images
2-21 Issues in Catalog Retailing Low Start Up Cost Evolution of Multi-Channel Offering Hard to compete with large well established firms Increasing Mail Costs Clutter from other Catalogs General merchandise catalogs like JC Penney Specialty Catalogs like Victoria Secret
2-22 Issues in Direct Selling Completely bypasses retailers and wholesalers Manufacturers set up their own channels to sell their products directly to consumers Party plan system: merchandise is demonstrated in a party atmosphere Multi-level network: Master distributors sell to distributors who sell merchandise Pyramid schemes: Firm sells to other distributors and little if any merchandise goes to end users
2-23 Issues in Television Home Shopping Consumers watch cable stations, infomercials or direct response ads Few consumers watch regularly Most purchases made by small proportion of viewers Customers cant examine merchandise Customers must wait for merchandise to come on Sells predominately jewelry, apparel, cosmetics, kitchenware, and exercise equipment
2-24 Issues in Vending Machine Retailing Automatic Merchandising About $25 billion worth of convenience goods are sold to Americans through 4.7 million vending machines Sales growth has been declining due to higher prices and healthier eating habits New technology may help sales growth Trend of placing machines in captive consumer locations
2-25 Merchandise/Service Continuum
2-26 Services vs. Merchandise Retailers Intangibility Problems in Evaluating Service Quality Performance of Service Provider Simultaneous Production and Delivery Importance of Service Provider Perishability No Inventory, Must Fill Capacity Inconsistency of the Offering Importance of HR Management
2-27 Types of Retail Ownership (c) Brand X Pictures/PunchStock Independent, Single Store Establishments Wholesale-sponsored voluntary group Corporate Retail Chains Franchises
2-28 Franchisor Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages Rapid expansion, highly motivated franchisees do a good job, additional profits by selling franchisees products and services. Disadvantages Company-owned units may be more profitable, less control then independent retailers over advertising, pricing, personnel practices, etc.
2-29 Franchisee Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages Established/proven product/service, business and technical assistance, and reduction in risk. Disadvantages Loss of control since only semi-independent, franchisee outlets may compete with corporate- owned outlets, and high royalties, fees, costs on equipment, supplies, merchandise, rental/lease rates and mandatory participation in promotional and support services.