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16-1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 16 Global Consumer Culture CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R. Solomon.

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Presentation on theme: "16-1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 16 Global Consumer Culture CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R. Solomon."— Presentation transcript:

1 16-1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 16 Global Consumer Culture CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R. Solomon

2 16-2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: Styles act as a mirror to reflect underlying cultural conditions. We distinguish between high and low culture. Many modern marketers are reality engineers.

3 16-3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives (continued) New products, services, and ideas spread through a population. Different types of people are more or less likely to adopt them. Many people and organizations play a role in the fashion system that creates and communicates symbolic meaning to consumers. Fashions follow cycles.

4 16-4 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives (continued) Products that succeed in one culture may fail in another if marketers fail to understand the differences among consumers in each place. Western (and particularly American) culture has a huge impact around the world, though people in other countries dont necessarily ascribe the same meanings to products as we do.

5 16-5 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Where Does Culture Come From? Influence of inner-city teens Hip-hop/black urban culture Outsider heroes, anti-oppression messages, and alienation of blacks Flavor on the streets

6 16-6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 16.1 The Movement of Meaning

7 16-7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 16.2 Culture Production Process

8 16-8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Culture Production System A culture production system is the set of individuals and organizations that create and market a cultural product It has three major subsystems Creative Managerial Communications

9 16-9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Cultural Gatekeepers Cultural gatekeepers are responsible for filtering the overflow of information and materials intended for customers Tastemakers Throughput sector

10 16-10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall High Culture and Popular Culture An art product is an object we admire for its beauty and our emotional response A craft product is admired because of the beauty with which it forms a function Mass culture creates products for a mass market

11 16-11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Table 16.2 Cultural Formulae in Public Art Forms Art Form/GenreWesternFamily Sitcom Time1800sAnytime LocationEdge of civilizationSuburbs ProtagonistCowboyFather HeroineSchoolmarmMother VillainOutlawsBoss, neighbor Secondary charactersTown folkKids, dogs PlotRestore law and orderSolve problem ThemeJusticeChaos and confusion CostumeCowboy hat, bootsRegular clothes LocomotionHorseStation wagon, SUV WeaponryRifleInsults

12 16-12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Discussion Can you identify a cultural formula at work in romance or action movies? Do you see parallels among the roles different characters play (e.g., the hero, the evildoer, the temptress, etc.)?

13 16-13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Reality Engineering Many consumer environments have images/characters spawned by marketing campaigns or are retreads Marketers use pop culture as promotional vehicles New vintage (e.g., used jeans) Elements used are both sensory and spatial

14 16-14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Product Placement and Branded Entertainment Insertion of specific products and use of brand names in movie/TV scripts Directors incorporate branded props for realism Is product placement a positive or negative when it comes to consumer decision- making?

15 16-15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Advergaming Advergaming refers to online games merged with interactive advertisements Advertisers gain many benefits with advergames Plinking is the act of embedding a product in a video

16 16-16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Diffusion of Innovations Innovation: any product that consumers perceive to be new New manufacturing technique New product variation New way to deliver product New way to package product Diffusion of innovation Successful innovations spread through the population at various rates

17 16-17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 16.3 Types of Adopters

18 16-18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Behavioral Demands of Innovations Three major types of innovations (amount of disruption/change they bring to our lives): Continuous innovation Evolutionary rather than revolutionary Dynamically continuous innovation More pronounced change to existing product Discontinuous innovation Creates major changes in the way we live

19 16-19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Prerequisites for Successful Adoption Compatibility Trialability Complexity Observability Innovation should be compatible with consumers lifestyles People are more likely to adopt an innovation if they can experiment with it prior to purchase A product that is easy to understand will be chosen over competitors Innovations that are easily observable are more likely to spread Relative Advantage Product should offer relative advantage over other alternatives

20 16-20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Fashion System The fashion system includes all those people and organizations involved in creating symbolic meanings and transferring these meanings to cultural goods Fashion is code Fashion is context-dependent Fashion is undercoded

21 16-21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Behavioral Science Perspectives and Models of Fashion Psychological Economic Sociological Medical

22 16-22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Motives and Psychological Models of Fashion Conformity Desire for variety seeking Need to express personal creativity Sexual attraction

23 16-23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 16.4 Normal Fashion Life Cycle

24 16-24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Fashion Life Cycle Example Introduction stage: small number of music innovators hear a song Acceptance stage: song enjoys increased visibility Regression stage: song reaches stage of social saturation as it becomes overplayed

25 16-25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 16.5 Comparison of Acceptance of Fads, Fashions, and Classics

26 16-26 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Discussion What is and what should be the role of fashion in our society? How important is it for people to be in style? What are the pros and cons of keeping up with the latest fashions?

27 16-27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 16.6 Behavior of Fads 16-27

28 16-28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall How Might We Know if a Trend is a Fad? Does it fit with basic lifestyle changes? Are there benefits? Can we personalize it? Is it a trend or a side effect? Is it a carryover effect? Who adopted the change?

29 16-29 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Cultural Differences and Marketing People around the world develop their own unique preferences Marketers must be aware of a cultures norms and manage the relationship between brand and culture strategically

30 16-30 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Think Globally, Act Locally Adopt a standardized strategy Adopt a localized strategy

31 16-31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Consumers and Global Brands Global citizens Global dreamers Antiglobals Global agnostics

32 16-32 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Emerging Consumer Cultures in Transitional Economies Creolization occurs when foreign influences integrate with local meanings Peruvian boys carry rocks painted like radios Chivas Regal wrappers on drums in highland Papua New Guinea Japanese use Western words for anything new and exciting I feel Coke and sound special

33 16-33 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Summary Styles are like a mirror that reflect culture. We can distinguish between high and low forms of culture. Marketers are also reality engineers. New products spread through the population. Certain characteristics make it more likely that they will be adopted.

34 16-34 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Summary The fashion system creates and communicates symbolic meaning for consumers. Fashion follows cycles. Products that succeed in one culture may fail in another due to cultural differences. Western culture has a huge influence on other cultures. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16-34


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