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The Effects of Magazine Advertising on The Perceived Abilities of Women in Leadership Positions Jennifer George Michelle Uhlenbrock.

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Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Magazine Advertising on The Perceived Abilities of Women in Leadership Positions Jennifer George Michelle Uhlenbrock."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Effects of Magazine Advertising on The Perceived Abilities of Women in Leadership Positions Jennifer George Michelle Uhlenbrock

2 Media Advertisement Media advertising relies on and reinforces stereotypes of women Evident in TV advertising, magazines Gendered Advertisements (Goffman, 1976) How women and men are portrayed in print advertisements Six visual cues for power that tend to be in favor of male dominance

3 Media Advertisement (cont.) High fashion magazines often portray women in negative light Submissive Powerless Objectified/sexualized Childlike Not all magazine advertisements portray women in negative light Powerful women are present in ads, but scarce


5 Past Studies of Magazine Advertisements Rudman and Borgida (1995) Sexist vs. non-sexist ads Women in sexist ads rated as less intelligent, less powerful, and less autonomous Findings: Exposure to sexist ads increased the occurrence of thoughts about women as objects

6 What About Women? TV Commercials as Achievement Scripts for Women (Geis, Brown, Jennings & Porter, 1984) Women who viewed sex-stereotyped commercials were more likely to deemphasize achievement and emphasize homemaking

7 Stereotyping How Gender Stereotypes Prevent Womens Ascent Up the Organizational Ladder (Heilman, 2001) There is a scarcity of women in upper level positions Gender stereotypes and the expectations they produce can have negative effects on women in the workplace

8 Research Question We are interested in studying how magazine advertisements (specifically womens fashion and beauty magazines) affect perceptions of women in leadership positions

9 Methods Materials Magazine advertisements from high fashion and beauty magazines Cosmo, Vogue, InStyle, Glamour, and Womens Health


11 Materials (cont.) Types of Ads Negative categories Artificial: doll-like, mannequin, unreal, puppet Sexualized Heroin chic Neutral category Athletic category Blurred product information to prevent associations with products

12 Artificial Advertisements

13 Sexualized Advertisements

14 Heroin Chic Advertisements

15 Neutral Advertisements

16 Athletic Advertisements

17 Gender Authority Measure Questionnaire Rudman and Kilianski (2000) Series of statements that evaluate peoples preferences for men and women in leadership positions Rated on a 1-5 Likert scale Our study: 1-6 scale Example: If I were in serious legal trouble, I would prefer a male to a female lawyer.

18 Hypothesis We expect to find that both men and women who view the negative categories of ads, will score higher on the GAM, than those participants who viewed neutral or athletic ads. Scoring higher = greater preference for men than for women in high-status jobs

19 What we expected to find… GAM

20 Participants & Procedure 272 participants 48 males 220 females 4 chose not to respond Ages 18 – 62 Average : 25 Online study Informed consent and random assignment to 5 different levels of the IV

21 Procedure (cont.) First set of GAM questions answered GAM split into pre and post measure to increase statistical power 9 questions each 10 advertisements from a single category Brief response given to each ad Use three words to describe this ad. Second set of GAM questions Demographic questions Debriefing form

22 What We Expected to Find… GAM

23 Time vs. Condition GAM F(4,259) = 1.786, p = α = 0.853α = 0.7

24 Discussion We concluded that short term effects of advertisements on peoples perceptions of women in leadership positions were mild and perhaps non- existent We are still concerned about the long term effects and effects on other attitudes

25 Limitations Procedure Limited number of ads. Shown for a short period of time Conditions Some ads could have easily fit into more than one category Could have used more pure ads

26 Connections to Past Research Geis, Brown, Jennings and Porter (1984) Had significant results – why? Participants wrote essays about how they imagine their lives and concerns 10 years from now, allowed for flexibility Used TV ads which vividly depict life as opposed to still photography

27 Future Directions Repeat research as a longitudinal study Use different methods of measuring attitudes Measuring different attitudes Stricter rules for ad selection and categorization Different types of media Television, commercials, music, etc.

28 Conclusion Reasons to be concerned These magazines reach over 9,000,000 women a year Ways women are being portrayed is negative

29 Questions?

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