Presentation on theme: "Jennifer George Michelle Uhlenbrock"— Presentation transcript:
1Jennifer George Michelle Uhlenbrock The Effects of Magazine Advertising on The Perceived Abilities of Women in Leadership PositionsJennifer GeorgeMichelle UhlenbrockM
2Media AdvertisementMedia advertising relies on and reinforces stereotypes of womenEvident in TV advertising, magazinesGendered Advertisements (Goffman, 1976)How women and men are portrayed in print advertisementsSix visual cues for power that tend to be in favor of male dominanceM** Bill: Is Goffman’s book Gendered Advertisements? I like your first two points after Goffman, but the last point I’m not sure I see how it follows.
3Media Advertisement (cont.) High fashion magazines often portray women in negative lightSubmissivePowerlessObjectified/sexualizedChildlikeNot all magazine advertisements portray women in negative lightPowerful women are present in ads, but scarceMichelleSlide 3:High fashion magazinesIt seems that the more fashion oriented the magazine is, the more “negative” the ads areMagazines such as Women’s Health or Good Housekeeping seem to have some positive ads… although they are scarce**Bill: Might change first point to “often portray”
5Past Studies of Magazine Advertisements Rudman and Borgida (1995)Sexist vs. non-sexist adsWomen in sexist ads rated as less intelligent, less powerful, and less autonomousFindings:Exposure to sexist ads increased the occurrence of thoughts about women as objectsMichelle
6What About Women?TV Commercials as Achievement Scripts for Women (Geis, Brown, Jennings & Porter, 1984)Women who viewed sex-stereotyped commercials were more likely to deemphasize achievement and emphasize homemakingMichelleIn another study done by Geis, Brown, Jennings and Porter (1984), female participants were asked to view either traditional sex-stereotyped commercials (i.e. the woman depicted as the “homemaker” and the man as the “bread winner”) or role reversed commercials (i.e. the man is the “homemaker” and the woman is the “bread winner”). This study found that the women who viewed sex-stereotyped commercials were more likely to deemphasize achievement and emphasize homemaking in their essays than women who viewed the exact same commercial with the male and female roles switched.
7StereotypingHow Gender Stereotypes Prevent Women’s Ascent Up the Organizational Ladder (Heilman, 2001)There is a scarcity of women in upper level positionsGender stereotypes and the expectations they produce can have negative effects on women in the workplaceJenn**Bill: Think about how to more directly connect these points to the main theme of your study. Subpoint 2 in particular could be reworded or paraphrased to better capture the main point you want to make.result in devaluation of their performance, denial of credit for their success, or penalization for being competentGender stereotypes and expectations could be cause of scarcity of women in upper level positions
8Research QuestionWe are interested in studying how magazine advertisements (specifically women’s fashion and beauty magazines) affect perceptions of women in leadership positionsJenn
9MethodsMaterialsMagazine advertisements from high fashion and beauty magazinesCosmo, Vogue, InStyle, Glamour, and Women’s HealthJenn
11Materials (cont.) Types of Ads “Negative” categoriesArtificial:doll-like, mannequin, unreal, puppetSexualizedHeroin chic“Neutral” categoryAthletic categoryBlurred product information to prevent associations with productsMichelleNegative and Neutral – suggestions of different terminology
17Gender Authority Measure Questionnaire Rudman and Kilianski (2000)Series of statements that evaluate people’s preferences for men and women in leadership positionsRated on a 1-5 Likert scaleOur study: 1-6 scaleExample: “If I were in serious legal trouble, I would prefer a male to a female lawyer.”JennIn addition we added 3 of our own questions, due to splitting the GAM in half. We wanted to ensure that the questions asked pre and post were sufficient.Note: we changed the scale from 1-5 to 1-6, so that our participants could not pick the neutral condition.
18HypothesisWe expect to find that both men and women who view the negative categories of ads, will score higher on the GAM, than those participants who viewed neutral or athletic ads.Scoring higher = greater preference for men than for women in high-status jobsJenn**Bill: Specify that “scoring higher” means showing greater preference for men than for women in high-status jobs.
20Participants & Procedure 48 males220 females4 chose not to respondAges 18 – 62Average : 25Online studyInformed consent and random assignment to 5 different levels of the IVJenn
21Procedure (cont.) First set of GAM questions answered GAM split into pre and post measure to increase statistical power9 questions each10 advertisements from a single categoryBrief response given to each ad‘Use three words to describe this ad.’Second set of GAM questionsDemographic questionsDebriefing formMichelleQuestions are irrelevant to the study and will be disregarded in final analysis of dataQuestions serve to ensure that participants are taking sufficient time to view the ads**Bill: change “10 randomly selected advertisements” to “10 advertisements from a single category (e.g., athletic)”**Change “Question unrelated...” to “Brief response given to each ad”
22What We Expected to Find… GAMJennThis is what we expected to find… remind audience of our hypothesis
23Time vs. Condition F(4,259) = 1.786, p = 0.132 GAM α = 0.853 α = 0.7 Jenn**Bill: Nice way to present the Cronbach alphas!α = 0.853α = 0.7
24DiscussionWe concluded that short term effects of advertisements on people’s perceptions of women in leadership positions were mild and perhaps non-existentWe are still concerned about the long term effects and effects on other attitudesMichelle**Bill: Very nicely phrased! Take time with point #2, elaborating a bit on what long term effects might look like and how they might be caused, and on what other attitudes might be more influenced than the attitudes toward women in leadership DV that you guys used. Maybe the effect on objectifying women?
25Limitations Procedure Conditions Limited number of ads. Shown for a short period of timeConditionsSome ads could have easily fit into more than one categoryCould have used more “pure” adsMichelleLimitations with procedureWe included a limited number of advertisements in our study. Each condition only had 10 photographs. We limited the number of photographs to 10, in order to ensure that our participants would not get bored with the study. Unfortunately we were unable to ensure that our participants were viewing the ads for a sufficient amount of time and noticed when we were analyzing our data that few participants spent more than 7 minutes viewing the photographs, and many did not answer the questions that accompanied them (although this data was irrelevant to our study). Additionally, we measured our participants views twice by splitting the GAM into a pre and post test. We did this because we wanted to control for variance and wanted to increase our study’s statistical power.**Bill: 7 minutes is actually a pretty long time. Don’t forget that if 7 minutes elapsed between submitting answers to the first set of questions and submitting answers to the second set, that 7 minutes also includes the time it took them to fill out the second set of questions, which was probably at least a minute.
26Connections to Past Research Geis, Brown, Jennings and Porter (1984)Had significant results – why?Participants wrote essays about how they imagine their lives and concerns 10 years from now, allowed for flexibilityUsed TV ads which vividly depict life as opposed to still photographyMichelleMore attitudes and expressive thoughts in writing an essay than answering questions from the GAM. If you don’t agree with the items on the Likert scale, you can’t really do anything about it.**Nice.
27Future Directions Repeat research as a longitudinal study Use different methods of measuring attitudesMeasuring different attitudesStricter rules for ad selection and categorizationDifferent types of mediaTelevision, commercials, music, etc.JennMeasuring attitudes: essays, short answerAttitudes:
28Conclusion Reasons to be concerned These magazines reach over 9,000,000 women a yearWays women are being portrayed is negativeJenn**Great.Still reasons to be concerned about these advertisements…reach over 9 million women each year. Many are young girls, giving them impressions of how they are to look, act, etc. Women are being portrayed negatively so should still be concerned.