17-3 Cultural Production Systems Cultural Production System (CPS)The set of individuals and organizations responsible for creating and marketing a cultural product is a Cultural Production System (CPS). It consists of: –Creative Subsystem –Creative Subsystem - responsible for generating new symbols and/or products. –Managerial Subsystem –Managerial Subsystem - responsible for selecting, making tangible, mass producing, and managing the distribution of new symbols and/or products. –Communications Subsystem –Communications Subsystem - responsible for giving meaning to the new product and communicating these symbolic attributes to the consumer.
17-4 High Culture and Popular Culture Culture Production Systems Arts CraftsCulture Production Systems create many diverse kinds of products, such as Arts and Crafts: Art Product –An Art Product is viewed primarily as an object of aesthetic contemplation without any functional value. Craft Product –A Craft Product is admired because of the beauty with which it performs some function. Cultural FormulaMass culture churns out products specifically for a mass market and many follow a Cultural Formula where certain roles and props occur consistently such as in detective or romance novels.
17-5 Reality Engineering Reality Engineering Reality Engineering Occurs as Elements of Popular Culture are Appropriated by Marketers and Converted to Vehicles for Promotional Strategies. Reality Engineering is Accelerating due to the Popularity of Product Placement. Reality Engineering is Accelerating due to the Popularity of Product Placement. Product Placement is the Insertion of Specific Products/ Brand Names in Movies & TV. Product Placement is the Insertion of Specific Products/ Brand Names in Movies & TV. Media Images Appear to Significantly Influence Consumers Perceptions of Reality. Media Images Appear to Significantly Influence Consumers Perceptions of Reality.
17-6 Diffusion of Innovations Percentage of Adopters Time of Adoption EarlyLate Innovator s Early Adopters Early Majority 13.5% 34% 16% Laggards Late Majority Diffusion of Innovations Diffusion of Innovations Refers to the Process Whereby a New Product, Service, or Idea Spreads Through a Population. 2.5%
17-7 Adopter Categories InnovatorsInnovators - 2.5% of the population, the first to buy, will buy novel products. Early Adopters InnovatorsEarly Adopters - 13.5 % of the population, share many characteristics with the Innovators, but they have a higher degree or concern for social acceptance. Early and Late MajorityEarly and Late Majority - 68% of the population, mainstream public, interested in new things, but not too new. LaggardsLaggards - 16% of the population, the last to adopt a product.
17-8 Types of Innovations SymbolicInnovation Communicates a New Social MeaningSymbolicInnovation Communicates a New Social Meaning TechnologicalInnovation Involves Some Functional ChangeTechnologicalInnovation Involves Some Functional Change
17-9 Behavioral Demands of Innovations Dynamically Continuous Innovation More Pronounced Change in the Existing Product Dynamically Continuous Innovation More Pronounced Change in the Existing Product Continuous Innovation Modification of an Existing Product Continuous Innovation Modification of an Existing Product Degree to Which an Innovation Demands Changes in Behavior Discontinuous Innovation Creates Major Changes in the Way We Live
17-10 Prerequisites for Successful Adoption Observability Ones That are Observable Spread Faster Trialability Reduce Risk by Letting Consumer Try it Complexity Lower The Better Compatibility Must Fit Consumers Lifestyle Relative Advantage Must Give Advantages Other Products Dont Have Product Characteristics for Successful Adoption Product Characteristics for Successful Adoption
17-11 The Fashion System Fashion is the Process of Social Diffusion by Which a New Style is Adopted by Some Group(s) of Consumers. Cultural Categories Affect Many Different Products and Styles Costumes Worn by Celebrities Can Affect Fashion Cultural Categories Affect Many Different Products and Styles Costumes Worn by Celebrities Can Affect Fashion Collective Selection Process by Which Certain Symbolic Alternatives are Chosen Over Others Group Products by Categories Collective Selection Process by Which Certain Symbolic Alternatives are Chosen Over Others Group Products by Categories
17-12 Behavioral Science Perspective on Fashion Psychological Economic Sociological Models of Fashion Models of Fashion Medical
17-13 Behavioral Science Perspective on Fashion Psychological Models of Fashion –Erogenous Zones
17-14 Fashions Have Accentuated Different Parts of the Female Anatomy Throughout History
17-15 Are We at the Mercy of Fashion Designers? Do you believe there is a designer conspiracy because they are the ones who determine what is in and what is out in fashion?Do you believe there is a designer conspiracy because they are the ones who determine what is in and what is out in fashion?
17-16 Economic Model of Fashion Parody Display Prestige-Exclusivity Effect Snob Effect
17-17 Sociological Models of Fashion Trickle-Down Theory Mass Fashion Trickle-Across Theory Trickle-Up
17-18 Medical Model of Fashion Meme Theory Tipping Point
17-19 Fashion Life-Cycle Introduction stages Innovation Acceleration Obsolescence General Acceptance Acceptance stages Regression stages Rise Decline A Normal Fashion Cycle
17-20 Cycles of Fashion Adoption Introduction StagesIntroduction Stages Innovators –Product is used by a small number of Innovators. Acceptance StagesAcceptance Stages –Product enjoys increased social visibility and acceptance by large segments of the population. Classic –A Classic is a fashion with an extremely long acceptance cycle. Fad –A Fad is a short-lived fashion. Regression StagesRegression Stages –Product reaches a state of social saturation as it becomes overused, and sinks into decline and obsolesce as new products rise to take its place.
17-22 Fad or Trend? Trend Questions to Ask to Determine if a Trend, Which Lasts for Some Time, is Occurring Include: Does it Fit With Basic Lifestyle Changes? What are the Benefits? Can it be Personalized? Is it a Trend or a Side Effect? What Other Changes Have Occurred in the Market? Who Has Adopted the Change?
17-23 Think Globally, Act Locally Two Views Exist Regarding the Necessity of Developing Separate Marketing Plans for Each Culture. Emic Perspective Adopting a Localized Strategy Which Focuses on Variations Within a Culture. Etic Perspective Adopting a Standardized Strategy Which Focuses on Commonalties Across Cultures.
17-24 Determining Whether to Utilize the Etic or Emic Perspective Cultural differences relevant to marketers. –Tastes and styles, –Advertising preferences and regulations, –Cultural norms toward taboos and sexuality. To maximize the chances of success for multicultural advertising campaigns, marketers should target those who share a common worldview, who may include: –Affluent people who are global citizens, and –Young people who are influenced by the media.
17-25 The Diffusion of Western Consumer Culture Creolization Occurs When Foreign Influences are Absorbed and Integrated With Local Meanings Creolization Occurs When Foreign Influences are Absorbed and Integrated With Local Meanings The West is a Net Exporter of Popular Culture The U.S. Invades Asia Signs That the Western Culture Invasion is Slowing Emerging Consumer Cultures in Transitional Economies