2 Dissolving KMnO4 crystal DiffusionParticles in a liquid or gas spread out…… from regions of high concentration…… to regions of low concentration……until the particles are evenly spread out.Dissolving KMnO4 crystal
3 The difference between the regions of high concentration and low concentration is called the concentration gradientThe steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion takes placeHigh concentration gradientFast rate of diffusionLow concentration gradientSlow rate of diffusion
4 Diffusion occurs because the particles in gases and liquids are moving.
5 Dissolving substances in water The molecules in liquid water are constantly movingWhen water molecules bump into particles of a soluble substance, they stick to themFree moving water moleculesSugar molecules in sugar lump
6 When the water molecules move away… … they carry particles of the solute with them
7 Adding a solute to water reduces the amount of free water molecules
8 Partially permeable membrane Partially-Permeable MembranesA partially-permeable membrane will allow certain molecules to pass through it, but not others.Partially permeable membraneGenerally, small particles can pass through……but large particles cannot
9 Free water molecules diffuse in this direction Partially-permeable membraneMore free water molecules on this side of membraneWater-solute particle is too large to pass through membraneFree water molecules diffuse in this direction
10 OsmosisOsmosis is the diffusion of free water molecules…… from a region of high concentration of free water molecules…… to a region of low concentration of free water molecules……across a partially-permeable membrane……until they are evenly spread out.
11 Answer to Brian teaser 1What is the difference between ‘melt’ and ‘dissolve’?Melting and dissolving are not the same.Melting is a change of state from solid to liquid. Such as, ice in a cup melting into water. This is usually due to temperatureDissolving occurs when a substance is added to a liquid (solvent) and is intimately dispersed in it at the molecular levele.g. sugar dissolving in water. The sugar spreads out in between the water molecules.Dissolving is due to molecules of the solvent mixing with the molecules of the solute.Temperature can speed up this process because the molecules move faster and you are able to dissolve more producing a saturated solution or even a super saturated solution
12 In melting only one substance is involved and the liquid and solid are the same material. Heat is needed for melting to occur.Dissolving involves two materials; the resulting solution is a mixture of both.