Presentation on theme: "Basic Atomic Structure. Chemistry Timeline #1 B.C. 400 B.C. Demokritos and Leucippos use the term "atomos 1500's Georg Bauer: systematic metallurgy Paracelsus:"— Presentation transcript:
Basic Atomic Structure
Chemistry Timeline #1 B.C. 400 B.C. Demokritos and Leucippos use the term "atomos 1500's Georg Bauer: systematic metallurgy Paracelsus: medicinal application of minerals 1600's Robert Boyle:The Skeptical Chemist. Quantitative experimentation, identification of elements 1700s' Georg Stahl: Phlogiston Theory Joseph Priestly: Discovery of oxygen Antoine Lavoisier: The role of oxygen in combustion, law of conservation of mass, first modern chemistry textbook 2000 years of Alchemy
Chemistry Timeline #2 1800's Joseph Proust: The law of definite proportion (composition) John Dalton: The Atomic Theory, The law of multiple proportions Joseph Gay-Lussac: Combining volumes of gases, existence of diatomic molecules Amadeo Avogadro: Molar volumes of gases Jons Jakob Berzelius: Relative atomic masses, modern symbols for the elements Dmitri Mendeleyev: The periodic table J.J. Thomson: discovery of the electron Henri Becquerel: Discovery of radioactivity 1900's Robert Millikan: Charge and mass of the electron Ernest Rutherford: Existence of the nucleus, and its relative size Meitner & Fermi: Sustained nuclear fission Ernest Lawrence: The cyclotron and trans-uranium elements
Law of Definite Proportion Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass. Water, for example, always has an 8:1 proportion of Oxygen to Hydrogen 16 amu Oxygen 2 amu Hydrogen 32 amu Oxygen 4 amu Hydrogen 48 amu Oxygen 6 amu Hydrogen Typically, this is written as a mass percent, so we say that water is 88.9% Oxygen (by mass) – what percent by number is this?
Law of Definite Proportion Examples What Mass of Oxygen is contained in a 50.0 g sample of water? – 44.5 g O What mass of Hydrogen is in a 35.5 g sample of water? – 3.94 g H An unknown water like substance was broken down and found to be composed of 58.8 g of Oxygen and 3.7 g Hydrogen. Could this substance be water? Show a calculation to support your answer. – No (shown to be 94.1 % Oxygen)
Law of Multiple Proportion If two elements combine to make different compounds, keeping one elements mass constant will always result in a whole number ratio of the second element. 50 grams of carbon can combine with 66.5 g of oxygen or 133 g of oxygen. What is the ratio of oxygen to oxygen in each compound? 14 grams of Nitrogen can combine with 8, 16, 24, 32 or 40 g of oxygen to form 5 different compounds. What is the ratio of oxygen in each?
Daltons Atomic Theory (1808) Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties John Dalton
Modern Atomic Theory Several changes have been made to Daltons theory. Dalton said: Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties Modern theory states: Atoms of an element have a characteristic average mass which is unique to that element.
Modern Atomic Theory #2 Dalton said: Modern theory states: Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions. However, these changes CAN occur in nuclear reactions
Discovery of the Electron In 1897, J.J. Thomson used a cathode ray tube to deduce the presence of a negatively charged particle. Cathode ray tubes pass electricity through a gas that is contained at a very low pressure. The rays showed that the charge to mass ratio of the negative particles was always the same, no matter the gas used.
Thomsons Atomic Model Thomson believed that the electrons were like plums embedded in a positively charged pudding, thus it was called the plum pudding model. J.J. Thomson
Mass of the Electron 1909 – Robert Millikan determines the mass of the electron. The oil drop apparatus Mass of the electron is x kg Mass of the electron is x kg
Conclusions from the Study of the Electron Cathode rays have identical properties regardless of the element used to produce them. All elements must contain identically charged electrons. Atoms are neutral, so there must be positive particles in the atom to balance the negative charge of the electrons Electrons have so little mass that atoms must contain other particles that account for most of the mass
Rutherfords Gold Foil Experiment Alpha particles are helium nuclei Particles were fired at a thin sheet of gold foil Particle hits on the detecting screen (film) are recorded
Rutherfords Findings The nucleus is small The nucleus is dense The nucleus is positively charged Most of the particles passed right through A few particles were deflected VERY FEW were greatly deflected Like howitzer shells bouncing off of tissue paper! Conclusions:
The Atomic Scale Most of the mass of the atom is in the nucleus (protons and neutrons) Electrons are found outside of the nucleus (the electron cloud) Most of the volume of the atom is empty space Helium-4 Image: User Yzmo Wikimedia Commons. 1 million femtometers = 1 nanometer 1 million nanometers = 1 millimeter
About Quarks… Protons and neutrons are NOT fundamental particles. Protons are made of two up quarks and one down quark. Neutrons are made of one up quark and two down quarks. Quarks are held together by gluons Images: Arpad Horvath, Wikimedia Commons.
Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element having different masses due to varying numbers of neutrons.
Atomic Masses average Atomic mass is the average of all the naturally isotopes of that element. Carbon =
Atomic Number Atomic number (Z) of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element.
Mass Number Mass number is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope. Mass # = p + + n Arsenic Phosphorus
Calculating Average Atomic Mass Calculate the average atomic mass of Chlorine and Silicon given the following information: ChlorineSilicon Mass number Exact mass Percent abundance Mass number Exact massPercent abundance Chlorine: Silicon: 28.09