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L. Seuront CNRS UMR 8187 LOG, Wimereux, France School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia South Australian Research and Development.

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Presentation on theme: "L. Seuront CNRS UMR 8187 LOG, Wimereux, France School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia South Australian Research and Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 L. Seuront CNRS UMR 8187 LOG, Wimereux, France School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia South Australian Research and Development Institute, Aquatic Sciences, West Beach, Australia Center for Polymer Studies, Department of Physics, Boston University, Bonston, USA On the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on zooplankton behaviour

2 Approach and focus Feeding and swimming behaviours intertwined in calanoid copepod, hence critical to understand - trophodynamics - population dynamics - carbon fluxes

3 Approach and focus Role of a range of stressors on zooplankton behaviour

4 Approach and focus - temperature and salinity - biologically-induced viscosity - anthropogenic pollutants, e.g. hydrocarbons Role of a range of stressors on zooplankton behaviour - natural contamination, e.g. HABs, diatom toxins - food quality and quantity

5 Approach and focus - temperature and salinity - biologically-induced viscosity - anthropogenic pollutants, e.g. hydrocarbons Role of a range of stressors on zooplankton behaviour - natural contamination, e.g. HABs, diatom toxins - food quality and quantity

6 On (massive) hydrocarbon contaminations

7 On (pernicious) hydrocarbon contaminations Oil leaked from a Nippon Petroleum Refining Co. oil factory float at Shiogama Bay, Miyagi prefecture, Japan Source: http://www.toledoblade.com Source: Google Earth Petroleum leaking from a ship in Adens harbour

8 Sub-lethal effects of hydrocarbons on zooplankton: - anomalous metabolism (Samain et al. 1980, 1981) - decreased/inhibited feeding (Berdugo et al. 1977, Berman et al. 1980, Cowles & Remillard 1983, Barata et al. 2002) - reduction in egg production (Ott et al. 1978) - reduction in hatching rate (Cowles & Remillard 1983) - increased mortality (Gajbhiye et al. 1995, Almeda et al. 2013) - reduction in clutch size (Barata et al. 2005) - behavioural changes (Seuront & Leterme 2007, Seuront 2010, 2011, 2012) On pernicious hydrocarbon contaminations

9 Sub-lethal effects of hydrocarbons on zooplankton: On pernicious hydrocarbon contaminations Short-term exposure to low concentrations no effects

10 Sub-lethal effects of hydrocarbons on zooplankton: Short-term exposure to low concentrations no effects Long-term exposure to low concentrations various effects On pernicious hydrocarbon contaminations

11 Sub-lethal effects of hydrocarbons on zooplankton: Short-term exposure to low concentrations no effects Long-term exposure to low concentrations various effects On pernicious hydrocarbon contaminations Detrimental cumulative effects unidentifiable under standard short-term incubations…

12 On pernicious hydrocarbon contaminations Different tools are needed to assess the impact of pernicious invisible contaminants

13 Objectives 1. ability of copepods to detect and avoid contaminated water 2. behavioural changes in contaminated water 3. effect of contaminated water on chemoreception 4. effect of contaminated water on mating strategies

14 Objectives 5. foraging behaviour as an end-point assessment and monitoring tool 1. ability of copepods to detect and avoid contaminated water 2. behavioural changes in contaminated water 3. effect of contaminated water on chemoreception 4. effect of contaminated water on mating strategies

15 Results: impact of pernicious contamination Pollutants: - naphthalene - WSF of commercial diesel oil - always sub-lethal and very low concentrations 2 to 3 orders of magnitude below lethal concentrations (LC50)

16 Avoidance of WSF point source contamination: Temora longicornis and Eurytemora affinis Seuront (2010) Zooplankton avoidance behaviour as a response to point sources of hydrocarbon-contaminated waterMarine and Freshwater Research, 61, 263-270. Seuront (2012) Hydrocarbon contamination and the swimming behavior of the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis Results: detection and avoidance

17 Avoidance of WSF point source contamination: Temora longicornis and Eurytemora affinis Seuront (2010) Zooplankton avoidance behaviour as a response to point sources of hydrocarbon-contaminated waterMarine and Freshwater Research, 61, 263-270. Seuront (2012) Hydrocarbon contamination and the swimming behavior of the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis Results: detection and avoidance

18 Avoidance of WSF point source contamination: Temora longicornis and Eurytemora affinis Seuront (2010) Zooplankton avoidance behaviour as a response to point sources of hydrocarbon-contaminated waterMarine and Freshwater Research, 61, 263-270. Seuront (2012) Hydrocarbon contamination and the swimming behavior of the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis Results: detection and avoidance

19 Avoidance of WSF point source contamination: Temora longicornis and Eurytemora affinis Seuront (2010) Zooplankton avoidance behaviour as a response to point sources of hydrocarbon-contaminated waterMarine and Freshwater Research, 61, 263-270. Seuront (2012) Hydrocarbon contamination and the swimming behavior of the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis Results: detection and avoidance

20 Avoidance of WSF point source contamination: Temora longicornis and Eurytemora affinis Seuront (2010) Zooplankton avoidance behaviour as a response to point sources of hydrocarbon-contaminated waterMarine and Freshwater Research, 61, 263-270. Seuront (2012) Hydrocarbon contamination and the swimming behavior of the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis Results: detection and avoidance

21 Avoidance of WSF point source contamination: Temora longicornis and Eurytemora affinis Results: detection and avoidance Seuront (2010) Zooplankton avoidance behaviour as a response to point sources of hydrocarbon-contaminated waterMarine and Freshwater Research, 61, 263-270. Seuront (2012) Hydrocarbon contamination and the swimming behavior of the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis

22 Pollutants: - naphthalene - WSF of commercial diesel oil - always sub-lethal and very low concentrations Water contamination and behavioural stress: - stress/sickness decrease behavioural complexity ( Bassingthwaighte et al. 1994; Escos et al. 1995; Alados et al. 1996) Results: impact of pernicious contamination

23 Pollutants: - naphthalene - WSF of commercial diesel oil - always sub-lethal and very low concentrations Water contamination and behavioural stress: - stress/sickness decrease behavioural complexity (Bassingthwaighte et al. 1994; Escos et al. 1995; Alados et al. 1996) - fractal analysis reveals stress when standard behavioural metrics fail in dolphins (Seuront & Cribb 2011), snails (Seuront et al. 2007) and copepods (Coughlin et al. 1992; Seuront & Leterme 2007; Seuront & Vincent 2008; Seuront 2011, 2012) Results: impact of pernicious contamination

24 Naphthalene and behavioural stress: Centropages hamatus Results: motion behaviour From Seuront & Leterme (2007) Increased zooplankton behavioral stress in response to short-term exposure to hydrocarbon contamination. Open Journal of Oceanography, 1, 1-7.

25 Naphthalene and behavioural stress: Centropages hamatus Results: motion behaviour From Seuront & Leterme (2007) Increased zooplankton behavioral stress in response to short-term exposure to hydrocarbon contamination. Open Journal of Oceanography, 1, 1-7. Speed (mm s -1 )

26 Naphthalene and behavioural stress: Centropages hamatus Results: motion behaviour From Seuront & Leterme (2007) Increased zooplankton behavioral stress in response to short-term exposure to hydrocarbon contamination. Open Journal of Oceanography, 1, 1-7.

27 Naphthalene and behavioural stress: Centropages hamatus Results: motion behaviour From Seuront & Leterme (2007) Increased zooplankton behavioral stress in response to short-term exposure to hydrocarbon contamination. Open Journal of Oceanography, 1, 1-7.

28 Naphthalene and behavioural stress: Centropages hamatus vs. C. typicus - C. hamatus: inshore, i.e. more contaminated - C. typicus: offshore, i.e. less contaminated Results: motion behaviour

29 Naphthalene and behavioural stress: Centropages hamatus vs. C. typicus - C. hamatus: inshore - C. typicus: offshore - stress: C. hamatus < C. typicus Results: motion behaviour

30 Naphthalene and behavioural stress: Centropages hamatus vs. C. typicus - C. hamatus: inshore - C. typicus: offshore - stress: C. hamatus < C. typicus - vulnerability higher offshore than inshore Results: motion behaviour

31 Results: more on motion behaviour Successive displacements are intermittent Highly non-Gaussian! Additional tools needed…

32 Results: more on motion behaviour Successive displacements are intermittent Highly non-Gaussian! Additional tools needed… Intermittency in nutrients, phyto- and zooplankton (Seuront et al. 1996a, b, 1999, 2002; Seuront & Schmitt 2004; Seuront 2005, 2008; Yamazaki et al. 2006)

33 Seuront (2010) Fractals and Multifractals in Ecology and Aquatic Science, CRC Press. Seuront & Stanley (in press) Anomalous diffusion and multifractality enhance mating encounters in the ocean. PNAS. Results: more on motion behaviour

34

35 Filtered seawater q Results: more on motion behaviour

36 Filtered seawaterFood-conditionned seawater q q Results: more on motion behaviour

37 Filtered seawaterFood-conditionned seawater q q q Results: more on motion behaviour PAH contamination

38 Filtered seawaterFood-conditionned seawater q q q Results: more on motion behaviour PAH contamination

39 Results: impact of pernicious contamination Modified from Seuront (2013) Chemical and hydromechanical components of mate-seeking behaviour in the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. Journal of Plankton Research, 35, 724-743. Copepods mate-seeking strategies rely on chemosensory abilitities 150 mm

40 Results: impact of pernicious contamination Modified from Seuront (2013) Chemical and hydromechanical components of mate-seeking behaviour in the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. Journal of Plankton Research, 35, 724-743. Copepods mate-seeking strategies rely on chemosensory abilitities 150 mm

41 WSF contamination and Temora longicornis mate-seeking and mating behaviour -ability of males to detect, track and capture females -control water vs. sub-lethal WSF concentration Results: mating behaviour

42 From Seuront (2011) Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod. PLoS ONE, 6(10), e26283. Results: mating behaviour

43 From Seuront (2011) Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod. PLoS ONE, 6(10), e26283. Results: mating behaviour

44 From Seuront (2011) Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod. PLoS ONE, 6(10), e26283. Results: mating behaviour

45 From Seuront (2011) Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod. PLoS ONE, 6(10), e26283. Results: mating behaviour

46 WSF contamination and Temora longicornis mating behaviour -decrease in male detection and tracking ability -decrease in contact rates (2-fold) -decrease in capture rates (3-fold) Results: mating behaviour

47 Conclusions and Perspectives -copepod behaviour is very complex, hence specific tools are needed -hydrocarbon contamination may have a critical effect on reproduction, even at very low concentrations -copepods are very sensitive to hydrocarbon contamination

48 Conclusions and Perspectives -copepod behaviour is very complex, hence specific tools are needed -hydrocarbon contamination may have a critical effect on reproduction, even at very low concentrations -copepods are very sensitive to hydrocarbon contamination -efficient tools to monitor water quality in quasi real-time

49 Thanks for your attention!

50 Special thanks to: (financial support 2006-2012) (financial support 1999-2000)

51


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