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The Dynamic Earth Chapter Three.

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Presentation on theme: "The Dynamic Earth Chapter Three."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Dynamic Earth Chapter Three

2 Earth As A System Four “Spheres” Geosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere
Biosphere a set of connected things or parts forming a complex whole, in particular Earth As A System

3 Sphere Sizes Four “Spheres” Geosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere Biosphere
12,756 km (diameter) Atmosphere 1,000 km Hydrosphere All water, incl atmospheric water Biosphere 9 km above surface 11 km beneath surface Sphere Sizes

4 Demonstration Lesson Homework

5 Idea that lithosphere is broken into plates that slide across asthenosphere
Responsible for current position of continents Landforms , volcanoes, earthquakes Plate Tectonics

6 Terms to Note Plate tectonics Convergent boundary Divergent boundary
Transform boundary Subduction Sea-floor spreading Terms to Note

7 Born when magma reaches and penetrates earth’s crust— usually at plate boundaries
Melted rock, gas, and water under intense heat and pressure Volcanoes

8 Volcanoes Occurs between both continental and oceanic plates Can form:
On land At divergent boundaries At convergent boundaries Volcanoes

9 Volcanoes Occurs between both continental and oceanic plates Can form:
Underwater At divergent boundaries At convergent boundaries Volcanoes

10 Ring around the pacific plate where 75% of world’s volcanoes occur
Ring of Fire

11 Hot Spots Example: Hawaiian Islands
Spots where volcanoes occur AWAY from plate boundaries simply because magma has come close to the surface Hot Spots

12 Eruptions Can be quiet or explosive Can cause lots of damage
Environmental Effects: Forms rocks silica, basalt, pumice, obsidian, rhyolite Kills vegetation Changes atmosphere Dust, ash, climate Paracutin Video One Video Two

13 Weathering and Erosion
Erosion- removal and transport of surface material Can occur because of wind or water Can be mechanical, chemical, or both Demonstrations Frost wedging- a common form of weathering in temperate regions Demonstration Violent Hawaii

14 Circle the gentlest slope in RED. (Merna)
Circle the steepest slope in BLUE. (Grace) Color in the peak of the landform in GREEN. (Jules) Draw a rough profile of the section from G-H. (Ann-Houston and Bridget) What kind of landform is this? (Rachel)

15 Circle the gentlest slope in RED. (Merna)
Circle the steepest slope in BLUE. (Grace) Color in the peak of the landform in GREEN. (Jules) Draw a rough profile of the section from G-H. (Ann-Houston and Bridget) What kind of landform is this? (Rachel)

16 3.2—The Atmosphere

17 What is the atmosphere? Atmos = vapor, steam (Greek)
Combination of gases which surrounds earth and makes life sustainable About 50 km thick (31 miles) Divided into layers based on temperature and pressure changes Remember– this was the 1.0m long section of our demonstration outside…

18 Functions of the Atmosphere
Protection of all life from dangerous sun rays Allows sunlight in Protects from drastic temperature variation (insulates earth) Transports energy and water vapor Stores nitrogen and CO2 (for plants) and oxygen (for animals) Protects from smaller meteorites

19 Atmosphere Profiles Homework Check
Draw the line that you came up with in RED. (Ava) Draw a BLUE bracket around the troposphere. (Catherine) Draw a GREEN bracket around the Stratosphere. (Grace) Draw a BLACK bracket around the thermosphere. (Alice) What is the temperature range of the atmosphere surrounding an airplane at cruising altitude? (Christine) ___________ ºC Write on the profile where the aurora borealis originates. (Kathy)

20 Atmosphere Profiles

21 Layers of the Atmosphere
Pauses

22 Aurora Borealis Video

23 Homework– For MONDAY Read article on ozone layer and global warming Answer questions We will USE this information for a discussion

24 Homework Check Ava and Jules Alice Christine Catherine Kathy

25 Energy in the Atmosphere
Remember– part of purpose of atmosphere is Letting sunlight in Keeping bad sun rays out Insulating Energy is neither created nor destroyed—only transferred. Heat and light are forms of ENERGY

26 Energy in the Atmosphere
So…2 questions: Where does the energy (heat and light) on earth come from? How is it transferred? 3 mechanisms for heat transfer: Radiation Conduction Convection

27 Textbook, p

28 1) Radiation Moves E through SPACE as WAVES
Reaches earth as electromagnetic radiation Includes visible light, infrared radiation, and ultraviolet (UV) light Only about 2 billionths of this E from sun hits earth Of this E, ½ reaches the Earth’s surface Where does the rest go? DEMONSTRATION Things that are NOT touching each other

29 1) Radiation

30 Textbook, p

31 2) Conduction Moves E from one object to another
Between two things in contact with one another 2) Conduction Moves E from one object to another Warmth emitted by earth’s surface is reabsorbed by the air at the surface Which layer of the atmosphere touches the earth’s surface? DEMONSTRATION

32 2) Convection Moves E from one fluid to another
Fluid includes air, water, AND molten rock 2) Convection Moves E from one fluid to another Occurs because of DENSITY differences Warm air is LESS DENSE than cool air, so it ______________ When the warm air cools, it is MORE DENSE, so it _________________ Creates CONVECTION CURRENTS Occurs in molten rock, air, and water Responsible for WEATHER DEMONSTRATION

33 Research Groups Assignment Tasks: Gather in (+/-) groups
(+) meets in back of classroom (-) meets in front of classroom Make a plan for Friday’s discussion What does it mean to be +/- in this debate? Discuss research so far Concerns? Good finds? Begin Making ROUGH outline You have until 9:25.

34 Common Confusion (homework)
Ozone Layer Greenhouse Effect Where is it? (Grace) What does it do? (Kathy) How does pollution affect it? (Rachel) What are the issues? (Merna)

35 Common Confusion Ozone Layer Greenhouse Effect Where is it?
Concentrated in Stratosphere Throughout atmosphere What does it do? Blocks OUT harmful UV rays Keeps enough radiation IN How does pollution affect it? Depleted by pollution Increased by pollution What are the issues? Ozone thinning = too many UV rays Too many greenhouse gases = rise in global temperature

36 Review Picture (#29)

37 Question: Talk about it
Which type of heat transfer is MOST important in the atmosphere? Why? Question: Talk about it

38 Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse gases insulate earth and keep enough warmth IN Mostly water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide TOO many greenhouse gases keeps TOO much warmth in

39 3.3– The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

40 3.3– The Hydrosphere and Biosphere
Review: Spheres of the earth (4) Geosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere Biosphere Earth is a SYSTEM Biosphere largely dependent on hydrosphere 3.3– The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

41 Hydrosphere Includes all water on or near Earth’s surface
Water = matter So, remains IN Earth’s closed system—recycled and reused

42 The Water Cycle (Hydrologic Cycle)
1. From liquid to gas 3. From tiny droplets to larger drops of liquid 2. From gas to tiny droplets of liquid

43 The Water Cycle (Hydrologic Cycle)
Smaller parts of cycle

44 Oceans Four/Five oceans, but considered one WORLD OCEAN
Covers over 70% Earth’s surface Helps regulate Earth’s climate

45 Ocean Facts and Figures
Size Depth Currents Special Features Pacific Largest (165,640,000 km2) (63,953,604 mi2) Deepest (4,280 m) (14,042 ft) Surface current: Clockwise in north; Counterclockwise in south Challenger Deep; deeper than Mt. Everest is tall! Atlantic Second Largest (81,630,000 km2) Second Deepest (3,926 m) Same as above Puerto Rico Trench; 28,231 ft deep Indian Third Largest (73,420,000 km2) Third Deepest (3,890 m) Java Trench; 25,344 ft deep Arctic Smallest Most Shallow (1,205m) Mostly covered with floating ice (pack ice) Challenger Deep– bottom of Mariana Trench by Phillipines, 11,033 m deep

46 Ocean Water Contains salts
Picked up from rocks over millions of years Gathered from underwater volcanoes Salinity = concentration of all dissolved salts Avg. 3.5 % by weight Where would you expect HIGH salinity? Low salinity?

47 Temperature Zones Temperature/ Facts Surface Thermocline Deep
Warm for 100 m; Surface Currents mix warm top water with layers below Thermocline Temp drops fastest of all layers Deep Very cold (avg. 2˚C)

48 Homework NO Wonder Journal this week
Watch NewPath Lecture and complete notes Work on Research

49 Why the temperature difference?
Open Question: Why the temperature difference? Bridget: Draw Gulf Stream Jules: Circle the two cities

50 Convection Current Demo
On an index card: On blank side: Draw experimental design On lined side: What do you THINK will happen? Convection Current Demo

51 Revisit Convection Current Demo
On an index card: On blank side: Draw experimental design On lined side: What do you THINK will happen? What actually happens? Is this what SHOULD have happened? Revisit Convection Current Demo

52 3.3– The Hydrosphere and Biosphere
Review: Spheres of the earth (4) Geosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere includes: Water in atmosphere Oceans Freshwater/Groundwater 3.3– The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

53 Fresh Water and Groundwater
Fresh water - water that is not salty 3% of water on Earth BUT most is “locked up” in icecaps and glaciers Other fresh water found in lakes, rivers, wetland, soil, rock layers, and atmosphere Groundwater- fresh water that trickles into ground from rain and runoff Less than 1% of all water on earth Fulfills water needs for Drinking water Agriculture Industrial uses Aquifers- rock layers that store groundwater

54 3.3– The Hydrosphere and Biosphere
Biosphere includes: All parts of earth that can be inhabited by life 3.3– The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

55 Biosphere Why is life limited to these spaces? Made up of:
Upper part of geosphere Most of hydrosphere 12 km into ocean (7.5 mi) Lower part of atmosphere Up to 9 km (5.5 mi) Why is life limited to these spaces?

56 Open System vs. Closed System
Which system describes earth? Why? What kind of energy enters the earth system? What kind of energy exits the earth system?

57 Meet in Groups Tasks: Discuss research Work on outline
Discussion will include the following: Define global warming Is it a problem? (why do we care?) What should we be doing about it? Finish outline for homework 5 minutes to talk at start of class Monday Meet in Groups


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