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Dr. Stanley Kabala Duquesne University Click here to begin.

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1 Dr. Stanley Kabala Duquesne University Click here to begin.

2 Navigation through the course will occur by clicking on the following action buttons located in the lower right corner of each screen: The HOME button will be placed in the center of each slide and will bring you to the Table of Contents for further navigation. The NEXT and BACK buttons will move you through the course content. The EXIT button will be placed at the end of each unit and will exit the unit and return you to the course menu.

3 This course is meant to be self-paced, though there will be opportunities to interact with your local and global JPIC groups. Course content and activities should be completed in the order that they are presented to maximize student success. The Table of Contents will be your starting point for each Unit

4 Each type of course activity has a unique icon located in the upper right corner of the screen. In this course you will: Global discussion Watch video Online journal Local discussion Read online ReflectCreate doc Quiz/test

5 View the JPIC 230 Course Guide

6 View the Lecture (03:00)

7

8 Before you begin this course, you will be asked nine questions to test your current knowledge of basic water fundamentals and terminology. Divide a sheet of paper into three columns, labeling them pre-test, post- test, and answers. Write down your answers in the first column (pre-test). Then, you will proceed to the unit on fundamentals of water science readings. After you have looked at this material, you will take your post-test.

9 The region of land over which a river has historically wandered and periodically flooded is a/an _____________. A)Ecosystem B)Floodplain C)Basin D)Watershed

10 A/an _____________ is an artificial chemical used to kill insects, plants, or fungi. A)Infectant B)Pathogen C)Pesticide D)Terminator

11 Groundwater is water that is stored _____________. A)On the surface B)In plants C)In wetlands D)Underground in aquifers

12 The removal of material from one place and its transport to another is referred to as _____________. A)Erosion B)Transference C)Currents D)Watershed

13 _____________ is the process in which water vapor is released by plants through their leaves. A)Photosynthesis B)Evaporation C)Transpiration D)Hyrdroelimination

14 _____________ is the process that makes possible the recharge of water in streams and rivers during seasons when precipitation is limited. A)Infiltration B)Evaporation C)Erosion D)Transpiration

15 _____________ is the process that draws down oxygen dissolved in water during the process of microbial decomposition of organic matter. A)Salinization B)Biological Oxygen Demand C)Transpiration D)Photosynthesis

16 Fecal coliform is considered a form of _____________ water pollution. A)Physical B)Chemical C)Thermal D)Biological

17 The purpose of aeration in wastewater treatment is to _____________. A)Remove non-soluble solids B)Destroy infectious pathogens C)Accelerate decomposition of organic matter D)Change the pH of the water

18 Place aside your answer sheet at this time. We will now begin a look at the fundamental knowledge of water and terminology.

19

20 This part is divided into several sections, each consisting of a micro- lecture and critical concepts. Start with the Hydrologic Cycle, OR click on the link below to navigate to the component where you left off. Revisit as needed. Section 1: The Hydrologic Cycle Section 2: Water Resources Section 3: Land Degradation Section 4: Water Pollution Unit Summary & Assignment

21 THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

22 At the conclusion of this section, students will be able to: Understand the interrelationship between evaporation, transpiration, and precipitation Understand the concept of recharge of groundwater and streams, and recognize the role of land surface permeability in that process Recognize the characteristics of and differences between erosion, deforestation, and desertification and understand their human causes

23 View the Lecture (02:44)

24 Review the key-terms for this section before you read. Click Here for Key-Terms

25 Miller, G. Tyler, Living in the Environment, 15 th ed., St. Paul, MN: Brooks/Cole, 2008. CD-ROM. PowerPoint slides for Ch. 14 Water. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS THROUGH DUQUESNE E-RES From MILLER. PowerLecture: A 1-Stop Microsoft PowerPoint Tool for Miller's Living in the Environment, 15th, Cengage Advantage Books: Sustaining the Earth: An Integrated Approach, 8th, Essentials of Ecology, 4th, 15E. © 2007 Brooks/Cole, a part of Cengage Learning, Inc. Reproduced by permission. www.cengage.com/permissions

26 WATER RESOURCES

27 At the conclusion of this section, students will be able to: Define the term aquifer and understand how aquifers function Describe the process by which streams and groundwater are recharged Define the concept of watershed and articulate its basic function in: Maintaining water quality Ameliorating flooding and erosion Define the term stormwater and articulate its relationship to land permeability and flooding basic functions Describe the impact of sedimentation and turbidity on stream water quality and the quality of aquatic habitat

28 View the Lecture (03:18)

29 Review the key-terms for this section before you read. Click Here for Key-Terms

30 Watersheds are the basic defining forms that govern a regions water identity – the physical, geological, topographical, land cover characteristics of the water resources in your region that define both opportunities and constraints: water abundance, water scarcity, flooding, and so on. The most effective approaches to managing water issues are those that work with that identity to maintain, maximize, or protect water resources. At the same time, since political and administrative boundaries are often defined by the rivers and streams that define them, it is a matter of some practical value to understand how natural topographic and human institutional boundaries are related.

31 1.First, determine by observation, the use of maps, and interviews with residents and public official, the territorial boundaries of the principal watershed in which your region lies. Note the river for which the watershed is named as well as its major streams and the bodies of water fed by your watershed. 2.As you do that, you will observe that political and municipal boundaries are very often defined by rivers and creek, with the effect that these administrative boundaries bisect watersheds, a matter that can complicate management of water resources. Determine the extent to which the topographic boundaries of local watersheds and administrative boundaries are at odds, and howif at alllocal municipal policies handle this question.

32 LAND DEGRADATION

33 At the conclusion of this section, students will be able to: Understand the meanings of the terms ecosystem and habitat Explain the role of overgrazing in land degradation and erosion Define the term hydrocide Explain the concept of peak water and how its different aspects are caused by and affect human settlements

34 View the Lecture (03:35)

35 Review the key-terms for this section before you read. Click Here for Key-Terms

36 Deforestation and the Water Cycle. Water Cycle. Miami University of Ohio. nd. Web. 30 Sep. 2011..http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/studentresearch/climatechange03/deforestation/watercycle.html

37 Your activities for this section connect two common aspects of land use with water issues. Activity #1 focuses on an issue of concern. Activities #2 and #3 look at possible causes of that issue. To carry out Activity #1, determine whether and to what extent deforestation is a matter of concern in your area, then use Activities #2 and #3 to gauge the relative impact of two typical drivers of forest loss.

38 Assess forest cover trends in your region/area/province over the past 30 years. To do this, consult with community leaders, appropriate officials in ministries of forestry and planning, and university researchers.

39 If your region is one in which livestock raising and herding is common, determine the extent to which overgrazing is at work as a cause of loss of forest cover. As this is typically a localor at bestsmall regional issue, this is best got at by interviewing local leaders (elders, councils), herders themselves, and field offices of national ministries of forestry and planning. The most common visual indicator of overgrazing is short and stunted bushes, small trees, and shrubs in grazing land. When interviewing herdsmen, listen for references to having to take herds further afield to find adequate grazing, or to observations of inadequate forage for herds in customary grazing areas.

40 Determine the extent to which logging is at work as a cause of loss of forest cover. Bear in mind that forest cover can be destroyed by legal as well as illegal logging.

41 Legal logging operations usually carry with them permits issued by a governmental regulatory agency. Such permits specify the area to be logged, and possibly requirements on cutting methods and reforestation actions to be taken after cutting is completed. Consult with field offices of the ministry of forestry, or other relevant regional agencies, for this information. You might be confronted with the fact that this information is considered proprietary, that is, confidential between the logging firm and the government. In such instances, it will be necessary to consult government policies on transparency of government practices to determine whether the claim of confidentiality is valid, or even legal.

42 In the case of what appears to be illegal logging, you must exercise caution in your investigation, because such investigations pose a threat to those who are already engaged in an illegal pursuit and who might resort to intimidation or violence to prevent that investigation. In any case in which logging is suspected to be illegal, above all involve both national and regional forestry regulatory agencies and local law enforcement officials.

43 WATER POLLUTION

44 At the conclusion of this section, students will learn: The sources, pathways, and specific effects of physical, biological, and chemical pollution on aquatic ecosystems. The sources, pathways, and specific effects of physical, biological, and chemical pollution on drinking water quality. The concept of biological oxygen demand in regard to levels of dissolved oxygen and the quality of aquatic habitats.

45 Note that some physical, biological, or chemical pollutants can affect both aquatic life and drinking water quality, while others might affect one but not significantly affect the other. For example, a biological contaminant such as an infectious pathogen that makes river water unsafe to drink can leave it that same water in quite satisfactory condition for fish and other river creatures.

46 View the Lecture (03:35)

47 Review the key-terms for this section before you read. Click Here for Key-Terms

48 Miller, G. Tyler, Living in the Environment, 15 th ed., St. Paul, MN: Brooks/Cole, 2008. CD-ROM. PowerPoint slides for Ch. 21 Water Pollution. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS THROUGH DUQUESNE E-RES From MILLER. PowerLecture: A 1-Stop Microsoft PowerPoint Tool for Miller's Living in the Environment, 15th, Cengage Advantage Books: Sustaining the Earth: An Integrated Approach, 8th, Essentials of Ecology, 4th, 15E. © 2007 Brooks/Cole, a part of Cengage Learning, Inc. Reproduced by permission. www.cengage.com/permissions

49 Conduct a preliminary assessment of the condition of water in natural bodies in your region, considering whether any deleterious conditions that are present affect aquatic life or the purity of water for human consumption. Then, on the basis of your assessment, determine the origin of the contaminant(s) that are the cause of this degradation of quality, and how those contaminants reach the body of water in question. Some of this might be done by visual observation, some by interviews with local residents, and some by seeking water testing data from government agencies and university researchers.

50 Now that you have looked at the fundamentals of water, you will retake the self-assessment at the beginning of this Part in order to see your knowledge growth.

51 Write down your answers in the second column (post-test). After you have taken the post-test, we will review the answers.

52 The region of land over which a river has historically wandered and periodically flooded is a/an _____________. A)Ecosystem B)Floodplain C)Basin D)Watershed

53 A/an _____________ is an artificial chemical used to kill insects, plants, or fungi. A)Infectant B)Pathogen C)Pesticide D)Terminator

54 Groundwater is water that is stored _____________. A)On the surface B)In plants C)In wetlands D)Underground in aquifers

55 The removal of material from one place and its transport to another is referred to as _____________. A)Erosion B)Transference C)Currents D)Watershed

56 _____________ is the process in which water vapor is released by plants through their leaves. A)Photosynthesis B)Evaporation C)Transpiration D)Hyrdroelimination

57 _____________ is the process that makes possible the recharge of water in streams and rivers during seasons when precipitation is limited. A)Infiltration B)Evaporation C)Erosion D)Transpiration

58 _____________ is the process that draws down oxygen dissolved in water during the process of microbial decomposition of organic matter. A)Salinization B)Biological Oxygen Demand C)Transpiration D)Photosynthesis

59 Fecal coliform is considered a form of _____________ water pollution. A)Physical B)Chemical C)Thermal D)Biological

60 The purpose of aeration in wastewater treatment is to _____________. A)Remove non-soluble solids B)Destroy infectious pathogens C)Accelerate decomposition of organic matter D)Change the pH of the water

61 Record these answers in the third column (answers) of your answer sheet.

62 The region of land over which a river has historically wandered and periodically flooded is a/an _____________. A)Ecosystem B)Floodplain C)Basin D)Watershed

63 A/an _____________ is an artificial chemical used to kill insects, plants, or fungi. A)Infectant B)Pathogen C)Pesticide D)Terminator

64 Groundwater is water that is stored _____________. A)On the surface B)In plants C)In wetlands D)Underground in aquifers

65 The removal of material from one place and its transport to another is referred to as _____________. A)Erosion B)Transference C)Currents D)Watershed

66 _____________ is the process in which water vapor is released by plants through their leaves. A)Photosynthesis B)Evaporation C)Transpiration D)Hyrdroelimination

67 _____________ is the process that makes possible the recharge of water in streams and rivers during seasons when precipitation is limited. A)Infiltration B)Evaporation C)Erosion D)Transpiration

68 _____________ is the process that draws down oxygen dissolved in water during the process of microbial decomposition of organic matter. A)Salinization B)Biological Oxygen Demand C)Transpiration D)Photosynthesis

69 Fecal coliform is considered a form of _____________ water pollution. A)Physical B)Chemical C)Thermal D)Biological

70 The purpose of aeration in wastewater treatment is to _____________. A)Remove non-soluble solids B)Destroy infectious pathogens C)Accelerate decomposition of organic matter D)Change the pH of the water

71 This concludes Part One of the course. Now that you have gained background knowledge of water, continue onto the other Parts in this course.


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