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© Fraunhofer ITWM 1 3d Microstructure Meeting, Saarbrücken, Nov 2011 Jürgen Becker Andreas Wiegmann Fraunhofer ITWM, Kaiserslautern Combining Pore Morphology and Flow Simulations to Determine Two-Phase Properties of 3D Tomograms

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 2 Case Study Input: Tomogram of Palatine Sandstone (Pfälzer Buntsandstein) Aim: Determine (saturation dependent) permeability Steps: Segmentation Pore size distribution Capillary pressure curve Permeability (fully saturated) Relative permeability (partially saturated)

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 3 Tomogram F. Enzmann, Inst. for Geosciences, Uni Mainz Pfälzer Buntsandstein resolution 0.7 µm 1024³ voxels

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 4 Segmentation Porosity 25.7 % Downscaled to 512³ voxels

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 5 Pore Size Distribution Pore space : X Opening of radius r : Volume of pores with radius : dark grey: light grey:

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 6 Pore Size Distribution (Sandstone)

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 7 Capillary Pressure / Pore Morphology Method Young – Laplace equation (pore radius cap. pressure) => Pore size distribution gives saturation at given cap. pressure But: connectivity of pores ? Pore Morphology Method: adds connectivity checks to Young-Laplace low numerical cost non-wetting fluid wetting fluid r

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 8 Drainage Hilpert / Miller 2001 Guarantees connectivity of NWP to reservoir Idea: move in spheres Start: completely wet Start: large radius (i.e. small p c ) Steps: smaller radius (higher p c ) No residual water Non-wetting phase (air) reservoir Wetting phase (water) reservoir

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 9 Drainage (+) Ahrenholz et al Additionally: WP must be connected to reservoir Residual water (orange) Non-wetting phase (air) reservoir Wetting phase (water) reservoir

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 10 Drainage (Sandstone Sample) Drained pores ( r = 8.4 µm)Drained pores ( r = 14 µm)

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 11 Drainage - Sandstone Sample Slice of the 3D result Residual water: 8.6 % black: air red: residual water white: matrix material

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 12 Capillary Pressure Curve (Drainage, Sandstone) Drainage Model (incl. residual water) contact angle 0° Water Saturation Cap. Pressure [Pa]

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 13 (Imbibition) Hilpert / Miller 2001 No connectivity checks No residual air Start: completely dry Start: small radius (i.e. large p c ) Steps: larger radius (smaller p c ) Distribution by pore radius (Young-Laplace)

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 14 Imbibition Non-wetting phase (air) reservoir Wetting phase (water) reservoir Ahrenholz et al WP must be connected to reservoir No residual air

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 15 Imbibition (+) Non-wetting phase (air) reservoir Wetting phase (water) reservoir Ahrenholz et al WP must be connected to reservoir NWP must be connected to NWP reservoir Residual air (orange)

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 16 Drainage & Imbibition (Sandstone) Water Saturation Cap. Pressure [Pa] small pores are connected large pores are not connected

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 17 Permeability Macroscopic description (homogenized porous media model) Darcys law : u : average flow velocity : permeability tensor unknown : viscosity p : pressure Microscopic description (pore structure model) Stokes equation: Boundary conditions: no-slip on surface, pressure drop can be determined from the solution!

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 18 Permeability (Sandstone) Result: e-12 m²

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 19 Relative Permeability Idea: Combine phase distributions from pore morphology single-phase flow Advantage: low computational costs stability

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 20 Relative Permeability (Sandstone) Choose saturation level, choose wetting model Use PM to find air distribution (here: yellow) Solve Stokes equation in remaining pore space

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 21 Relative Permeability (Sandstone)

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 22 Summary: Case Study Input: Tomogram of Palatine Sandstone (Pfälzer Buntsandstein) Calculated properties: Pore size distribution Capillary pressure curve Permeability Relative permeability Software used:

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 23 Other Options Virtually generated 3D models instead of tomograms Fibrous nonwovens Wovens Sintered ceramics Consider relative diffusivity instead of relative premeability

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 24 Other Industrial Applications Fuel cell: gas diffusion layer Diapers and hygiene products Filtration Paper dewatering felts Sintered ceramics Woven metal wire meshes

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© Fraunhofer ITWM 25 Thank You ! Geometry generator, property predictor and virtual material designer

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