Presentation on theme: "Salinity Describe: SPLAT Salinity Risk Assessment Tool is a paper-based salinity extension tool. Managing salinity involves striking a balance between."— Presentation transcript:
Salinity Describe: SPLAT Salinity Risk Assessment Tool is a paper-based salinity extension tool. Managing salinity involves striking a balance between the volume of water entering the groundwater system (recharge) and the volume of water leaving it (discharge). Analyse: Although PSS is a dimensionless quantity, its "unit" is usually called PSU. It is not the case that a salinity of 35 exactly equals 35 grams of salt per liter of solution. Causes: natural processes such as weathering of rocks and wind and rain depositing salt over thousands of years – Widespread land clearing and altered land use, and may take the form of "dryland salinity" – Dryland salinity occurs when deep-rooted native plants are removed or replaced with shallow-rooted plants that use less water. Effects: may cause native vegetation to become unhealthy or die and lead to a decline in biodiversity through dominance of salt-resistant species – Reduces amount of crops
Dalton Alexander Will Simmons Christian Landeros - Tools/Techniques: The concentration of dissolved oxygen in water can be measured using two methods. The easiest method, which requires no calculations, is using a dissolved oxygen meter. The most reliable method is the Azide-Winkler titration method. - Measurement: Dissolved Oxygen can be measured with an electrode and meter or with field test kits. - Causes: More sunlight and warmer temperatures also bring increased activity levels in plant and animal life; depending on what organisms are present, this causes the DO concentration increase or decrease. - Effects: As the water moves slower, it mixes less with the air, it may decrease DO concentration to decrease. During rainy seasons, oxygen concentrations tend to be higher because the rain interacts with oxygen in the air as it falls. - Solutions: Oxygen enters the water by absorption directly from the atmosphere or by aquatic plant and algae photosynthesis. Oxygen is removed from the water by respiration and decomposition of organic matter. Dissolved Oxygen
pH Tools: litmus paper, pH drops Units: pH on a scale of 0-14 Causes: location, composition of the soil around the water Effects: deformities, death, bad things… Treatment: add opposite acids or bases to neutralize the solution
Turbidity Turbidity: How murky the water is Tools to measure: Secchi disk Measured in Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU) Causes: sediments, algae, waste, urban runoff Effects: absorb and block sunlight raising the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Dissolved Metals Toluope Adekunjo and Jolleen Thompson Many dissolved metals have been found in harmful concentrations in groundwaters destined for potable drinking water due to both naturally occurring contamination as well as contamination introduced from industrial pollution. Examples- mercury, and lead, Cadium Where does mercury come from. Mercury occurs in the environment naturally, as a result of human activity, mercury can also evaporate to form and odorless, colorless, vapor, mercury has proved useful for measuring devices, such as thermometers, and mercury also comes from the erosion of rocks. This heavy metal is toxic even at low concentrations to a wide range of organisms including humans. The organic form of mercury can be particularly toxic, and the methyl-and ethyl- forms have been the cause of several major epidemics of poisoning in humans resulting from the ingestion of contaminated food, e.g. fish. Where does lead come from? Lead is a natural element which is widely distributed in soils, rocks and in rivers and the sea. But in nature lead usually exist combined with other chemical elements in the form of lead compounds. Lead poisoning is one of the most prevalent public health problems in many parts of the world. It was the first metal to be linked with failures in reproduction. It can cross the placenta easily. It also affects the brain, causing hyperactivity and deficiency in the fine motor functions, thus, it results in damage to the brain. Ways to stop Mercury and lead pollution. Wastes management, reducing consumption of raw materials, and products generating mercury releases. Called the EAP to reduce the level of lead pollution, removed lead contents from gasoline, and check older buildings for lead.
B O D Samantha Tan, Leilani Anonuevo, Tyler Zahn, Chris Kwasny Methods to determine: Dilution and manometric Units of measure: Mg/ L Causes: When theres more life in the water that is causing a higher demand for oxygen Effects: High B.O.D. means high pollution which can spread disease and become hazardous to humans Solutions: providing a supply of oxygen during the treatment process
WATER TEMPERATURE Testing surface water temperature only requires a thermometer and a data sheet. Temperature changes for many reasons due to man 1.Dams 2.Factories 3.And humans cutting off trees that provide shade By: Marcio and Chad
* Tools/Techniques- Regular tests are done to ensure public safety. For testing use a water testing kit or if you have a private well use private laboratories. * Measurement: The reporting limits for the HPAA method are 0.2 micrograms per liter (ug/L), while reporting limits for the LCAA method are 0.05 ug/L. * Cause : Pesticides not taken up by plants, adsorbed by soils or broken down by sunlight, soil organisms or chemical reactions may ultimately reach groundwater sources of drinking water. * Effects: Pesticides can cause cancer, organ damage in animals. In humans pesticides can cause damage to the nervous system, cause cancer, and birth defects. * Solutions: Use an activated carbon filter. Water is filtered through carbon granules that trap contaminants.
PHARMACEUTICALS Pharmaceuticals are chemicals found in prescription, over-the-counter, and veterinary drugs. Describe: The method used to test for pharmaceuticals combines solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography. Analyze: Measured in nanograms per liter; usually present in much lower amounts than the acceptable medical dose Causes: Pharmaceuticals are introduced to the water supply through the sewage of individuals who took these drugs, improper drug disposal, poorly controlled manufacturing facilities, and agricultural runoff. Effects: Since the pharmaceuticals are present in such small amounts, there are usually no negative effects to human health. However, scientists are beginning to worry about the long-term consequences of these chemicals in drinking water. Solutions: Natural processes (adsorption into sediment, solar photodegradation and biological degradation); proper household drug disposal; wastewater treatment
Phosphorous Measured with Colorimetric procedures and ascorbic acid treatment in units of mg/L Phosphorous levels increase when exposed to fertilizer or detergents higher levels promote algae growth which is detrimental to other organisms Can be treated with calcium or aluminum and iron to lower phosphorous levels CHRIS DANIELA COLLIN
Coliform James Dedmon Olivia Herrera Measuring Methods Two common laboratory procedures: Membrane filtration(MF) Most probable number(MPN)
Nitrogen: Nitrite/Nitrate Describe: Nitrate Electrode Method Analyze: Read in millivolts converted to mg/l Causes: affects the electric potential of a solution in the probe. Effects: Eutrophication in bodies of water. Can cause a restriction of oxygen transport in blood for humans.
BACTERIA, WAYS TO FIND, DETECT AND ELIMINATE. NOAH KING BACTERIOLOGICAL WATER ANALYSIS IS A METHOD OF ANALYZING WATER TO ESTIMATE THE NUMBERS OF BACTERIA PRESENT AND, IF NEEDED, TO FIND OUT WHAT SORT OF BACTERIA THEY ARE. IT REPRESENTS ONE ASPECT OF WATER QUALITY. IT IS A MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYTICAL PROCEDURE WHICH USES SAMPLES OF WATER AND FROM THESE SAMPLES DETERMINES THE CONCENTRATION OF BACTERIA. IT IS THEN POSSIBLE TO DRAW INFERENCES ABOUT THE SUITABILITY OF THE WATER FOR USE FROM THESE CONCENTRATIONS. THIS PROCESS IS USED, FOR EXAMPLE, TO ROUTINELY CONFIRM THAT WATER IS SAFE FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION OR THAT BATHING AND RECREATIONAL WATERS ARE SAFE TO USE. THE INTERPRETATION AND THE ACTION TRIGGER LEVELS FOR DIFFERENT WATERS VARY DEPENDING ON THE USE MADE OF THE WATER. VERY STRINGENT LEVELS APPLYING TO DRINKING WATER WHILST MORE RELAXED LEVELS APPLY TO MARINE BATHING WATERS WHERE MUCH LOWER VOLUMES OF WATER ARE EXPECTED TO BE INGESTED BY USERS. SOME WAYS TO GET RID OF THESE HARMFUL SUBSTANCES IS TO BOIL WATER WILL KILL ALL LIFE WITHIN THE WATER, CARBON FILTERS GET RID OF THE BACTERIA THOUGH FILTERING, ANOTHER WAY IS TO USE A SAND FILTER OR EVAPORATION METHOD.