# path takes the least time?

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path takes the least time?
Suppose the sprinters wish to get from point Q on the beach to point P on the parking lot as quickly as possible. Which path takes the least time? 1. a 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. All paths take the same amount of time. Answer: 4. Anybody—sprinter or couch potato—can run more quickly on a hard surface than on loose sand. While the distance on loose sand is slightly less for path e than for path d, the run over the parking lot is much longer. The result is that path e is more time-consuming than path d.

4. spaced closer together.
The observer at O views two closely spaced lines through an angled piece of plastic. To the observer, the lines appear (choose all that apply) 1. shifted to the right. 2. shifted to the left. 3. spaced farther apart. 4. spaced closer together. 5. exactly as they do without the piece of plastic. Answer: B. Refraction through the plastic shifts the beams toward the left. Since the beams from both lines shift the same amount, the spacing between the two lines remains the same.

1. a greater depth than it really is. 2. the same depth.
A fish swims below the surface of the water at P. An observer at O sees the fish at 1. a greater depth than it really is. 2. the same depth. 3. a smaller depth than it really is. Answer: 3.The rays emerging from the water surface converge to a point above the fish. See figure.

Explanation Answer: 3.The rays emerging from the water surface converge to a point above the fish. See figure.

1. a greater depth than it really is. 2. the same depth.
A fish swims below the surface of the water. Suppose an observer is looking at the fish from point O' straight above the fish. The observer sees the fish at 1. a greater depth than it really is. 2. the same depth. 3. a smaller depth than it really is. Answer: 3.The rays emerging from the water surface converge to a point above the fish.

Explanation Answer: 3.The rays emerging from the water surface converge to a point above the fish.

There are certain materials which can have properties that seem to ignore the laws of physics. These man made materials called metamaterials are specifically designed to exhibit electromagnetic characteristics not seen in nature. One such result is a chemical with a negative refractive index. What would a chemical with a negative refractive index look like? Negative Refractive index Positive Refractive index These are computer generated images to simulate the what would be observed.

3. farther from the lens than outside the water.
A parallel beam of light is sent through an aquarium. If a convex glass lens is held in the water, it focuses the beam 1. closer to the lens than 2. at the same position as 3. farther from the lens than outside the water. The index of water is greater than that of air, therefore less refraction occurs. Answer: 3. The index of refraction of water is between those of air and glass. Thus, rays of light refract less in going from water to glass than in going from air to glass. As a result, a convex lens focuses rays of light less tightly under water.

Shown in the photograph below is a small fuse box as seen through a magnifying glass.
Now suppose that the entire magnifying glass and fuse box assembly were placed into the tank of water seen at the rear of the picture behind the assembly. After the magnifying glass/fuse box assembly is placed into the water the letters on the fuse box will appear: (1) larger. (2) smaller. (3) the same size.

Huygen’s Principle: Electromagnetic waves can be examined using geometrical considerations instead of the relationships between the electric and magnetic fields (such as Snell’s Law). Huygen’s Principle was the first theory describing the wave nature of light that explained reflection and refraction. Huygen’s Principle states: “All points on a given wavefront are sources of spherical secondary waves called wavelets, which propagate outward. The new wavefront will be a surface line tangent to each of these wavelets.” cDt Wavelets cDt Wavefront 1 2 This theory has more historical significance than practical applications.

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