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Basic Water Treatment Water Chemistry In order to understand how to best serve a customers needs, a system integrator needs to understand water chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Water Treatment Water Chemistry In order to understand how to best serve a customers needs, a system integrator needs to understand water chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Basic Water Treatment

3 Water Chemistry In order to understand how to best serve a customers needs, a system integrator needs to understand water chemistry and how the customers process affects the water molecule.

4 Water Chemistry 4 Universal Solvent Everything dissolves in water

5 Wastewater Chemistry pH/ORP Surfactants/ Emulsification Hardness Total solids Dissolved solids Suspended solids Turbidity BOD/COD

6 Power of Hydrogen B pH means Power of Hydrogen B H 2 O = (H + ) + (OH - ) B pH 7 =.0001 ppm (H + ) Acidic Caustic

7 pH Balancing Each integer increase or decrease in pH is factored by 10 x A change from pH 7 to pH 8 is a change to ten times the causticity

8 Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) ORP is the measurement of choice for biological control It measures the bug killing capability of your system

9 Emulsion Breakers The dielectric characteristics of oil & water cause emulsified oil droplets to carry negative charges.

10 Emulsion Breakers A cationic (positively charged) emulsion breaker gets the call to neutralize the charge - -

11 Hardness Magnesium and calcium levels in water create hard water. Resin bed systems remove the magnesium and calcium through Ion Exchange. Salt is used to regenerate the resin.

12 Total Dissolved Solids TDS is just as it sounds. Solids that are dissolved in water. TDS cannot be seen in the water. Difficult to remove

13 Total Suspended Solids TSS is just as it sounds. Solids that are suspended in water. TSS can be seen in the water. Less difficult to remove

14 Turbidity Turbidity is the color in water. Emulsified solutions Difficult to remove Paints, Inks, Oils

15 BOD/COD Biological Oxygen Demand. Chemical Oxygen Demand Organic or chemical Odor causing constituents Removes oxygen from water

16 Wastewater Treatment Technologies Bioremediation Coagulation/Floc Membrane Filtration Filtration/Gravity Oxidation (Ozone) Thermal Oxidation Encapsulation

17 Bio-Remediation

18 What is Bio-Remediation? How does Bio-Remediation Work? Anaerobic- Having no air Aerobic- Having air Organic compositions are consumed by a living organism

19 Anaerobic Initial breakdown of organic mass No air and no light Sometimes required to effectively set up stream to be delivered to aerobic treatment

20 Bug Health Needs O Adequate food supply O Availability of nutrients O Temperate climate O Uniform pH climate O No life sustaining disturbances

21 Coagulation Like charged particles suspended in solution can neither rise nor fall The coagulant neutralizes the charges allowing the particles to collide

22 Flocculation Long chained polymers with molecular weights from a ¼ million to several million The polymers attach themselves to the contaminants and fall quickly

23 Membrane Filtration Membranes Poly material Layered to generate surface area Very small filtration levels pH specific on most Susceptible to clogging Maintenance intensive

24 Filtration / Gravity 200 to 1 micron size Back flush Lower maintenance Less expensive to buy and operate Lower replacement costs Needs to be specific to effluent Weirs Coalescing Slowing/Settling Water rising and falling Wide spectrum treatment Poorer quality output

25 Thermo Oxidation Thermally destroy organic compounds Evaporation process that completely removes the water from the solids.

26 Encapsulation Systems Clay Treatment Emulsions Inks & Dyes Heavy metals BOD

27 What is Oxidation? Simply put: The adding of an oxygen atom You are changing the composition of a molecule in order to change how it behaves

28 What is Ozone? O1O1 O1O1 O3O3 O3O3 O2O2 O2O2 O2O2

29 O 3 the Aggressor The energy stored to create ozone wants to react by forcing the extra oxygen atom on an organic molecule The resulting reaction is CO 2 + H 2 O

30 Oxidizers Fluorine (F - ) Hydroxyl Radical (OH o ) Ozone (O 3 ) Chlorine (Cl - ) Bromine (Br - ) Hydrogen Peroxide (H 2 O 2 )

31 RGF Selected Oxidizers These oxidizers do not contribute to TDS Hydroxyl Radical (OH o ) Ozone (O 3 ) Hydrogen Peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) – Oxypuck UV light

32 What is Catalytic Oxidation? A combination of multiple oxidants to form an hydroxyl radical OH O. O3O3 Oxypuck UV OH O

33 How is the Hydroxyl Radical Formed? H2O2H2O2 O3O3 UV

34 Basic Information Needed It is important to gather the proper information to effectively integrate a system. Complete RGF Site Evaluation Form

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