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Partner AquaNova LLC, Gloucester, MA Professor Emeritus Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI Northeastern University, Boston, MA 2012 Kappe Lecture American.

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Presentation on theme: "Partner AquaNova LLC, Gloucester, MA Professor Emeritus Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI Northeastern University, Boston, MA 2012 Kappe Lecture American."— Presentation transcript:

1 Partner AquaNova LLC, Gloucester, MA Professor Emeritus Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI Northeastern University, Boston, MA 2012 Kappe Lecture American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists © Vladimir Novotny

2 Cities of the Future – Utopia or Unavoidable Reality Urbanites now outnumber their rural cousins – and thats surprisingly good news for the environment The average New Yorker uses far less water and produces less than 50 per cent of the green- house emissions of the average US citizen Barley 2010, New Scientist 2785, 32-37 Model of Tianjin Ecocity, China COF – an international movement towards urban water, energy and resources sustainability However, there is an urgent need for this and future generations to change the paradigm of how water, energy and resources are managed in urban areas.

3 Population increases and migration Current and future effects of climatic change Increasing imperviousness of watersheds, more polluted runoff Excessive use of energy Unbalanced hydrology by groundwater infiltration into sewers Excessive use of water Competing uses of resources Under Current (4 th ) Paradigm Urban sustainability is compromised by

4 Urban Metabolism A Linear needs to be changed to B Cyclic or Hybrid

5 Current urban systems are mostly linear Excessive water volumes are withdrawn from mostly distant surface and groundwater sources Inside the community water is used only once and wastefully Drinking water used in landscape irrigation for growing grass Only about 5 % of treated potable water is used for drinking and cooking Great losses of water by leaks and evapotranspiration Water is transferred underground to distant large wastewater treatment plants The WWTPs use excessively energy, emit carbon dioxide and often methane which are green house gases The WWTPs remove but rarely recover nutrients for reuse Effluent dominated receiving water bodies after discharge Water short water bodies in the cities Reduced or no base flow. Streams converted to (combined) sewers or concrete lined channels with no natural low flow. Excessive energy use and GHG emissions Courtesy Philadelphia Water Department

6 Cities must adapt to the impact of global climatic change Heat-temperature and global climatic changes Urban heat islands Disaster risks in urban areas are already severe and will be more deadly if nothing is done Drought Flooding More frequent and intense catastrophic rainstorms (20 – 50 cm rainfalls) and tidal surges Expected sea level increase (Venice, New Orleans, Tampa, Galveston, The Netherlands, Bangladesh) Inadequate subsurface urban drainage infrastructure Large parts of some cities are or will become inhabitable (Mumbai, Bangkok, New Orleans) Credit Chicago Tribune and USA TodayFrom IPCC 2011 report

7 Macroscale (Giant) Footprints of Sustainability A footprint is a quantitative measure showing the appropriation of natural resources by human beings Ecological - a measure of the use of bio-productive space (e.g., hectares (acres) of productive land needed to support life in the cities, including assimilation of pollution) Water - measures the total water use on site and also virtual water (usually expressed per capita) Carbon - is a measure of the impact that human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of GHG emissions measured in units of carbon dioxide per capita

8 Ecological footprint YearWorld Population Available productive land Ha/personAc/person 1995< 6 billion1.53.6 2040>9 billion<12 Current ecological footprint Countries with 1 ha/person or lessMost cities in undeveloped countries Countries with 2-3 ha/personJapan and Republic of Korea (democratic) Countries with 3-4 ha/personAustria, Belgium, United Kingdom, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland Countries with 4-5 ha/personAustralia, Canada and USA If the cities in the currently rapidly developing countries (China, India, Brazil) try to reach the same resource use as that in developed countries, conflicts may ensue

9 Urban water use in some countries VIRTUAL WATER l/cap-day Food 1928 Electricity 53-73 liter/kg Beef 15,500 Corn 900 Milk 1,000 1 gallon=3.78 liters 1 kg = 2.2 lbs Difference between total on site and domestic uses In Nairobi (Kenya) and other megalopoli of the developing world urban water use is < 50 liter/capita-day

10 One Month Supply of Water for Typical Florida Family 45 m 3 (12,000 gallon) tank Weight = 45 tons Cost of water is about $40- 70/month 2/3 of cost is to transport the water Major use of expensive energy (1-2 kWatt/m 3 ) Much of this potable water is used for landscape irrigation Picture credit Professor James Heaney, University of Florida

11 GHG (carbon) Emission by Cities Top ten countries in the CO 2 emissions in tons/person-year in 2008 1 QatarKuwaitUAEArubaBahrainLuxembourg Australia USASaudi Arabia Canada 4930.12521.7 21.421.518.618.816.616.3 Selected world cities total emissions of CO 2 equivalent in tons/person-year 2 Washington DC Glasgow UK Toronto CA Shanghai, China New York CityBeijing China London UK Tokyo Japan Seoul Korea Barcelona Spain 3.4 Selected US cities domestic emissions of CO 2 equivalent in tons/person-year 3 San Diego CASan Francisco Boston MA Portland OR Chicago IL Tampa FL Atlanta GATulsa OK Austin TXMemphis TN 9.3 10.49.912.6 11.06 1 World Bank (2012); 2 Dodman (2009) ; 3 Gleaser and Kahn (2008) 2,3 Values include transportation (private and public), heating, and electricity GHG = Green House Gases (CO 2, methane, nitrogen oxides and other gases)

12 6 cities Ecocities LID potential Total energy footprint of cities Population density matters Qingdao

13 GOAL: WATER CENTRIC SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT COMMUNITIES 1.ECONOMY Create jobs, income and tax base 2.ECOLOGY Protect, restore and build city s natural assets and eliminate pollution 3.EQUITY All residents have an access to economic opportunities and are not exposed to environmental harms J. Fitzgerald – Emerald Cities

14 Vision of the Cities of the Future The 5 th (Sustainable) Paradigm An ecocity is a city or a part thereof that balances social, economic and environmental factors (triple bottom line) to achieve sustainable development. A sustainable city or ecocity is a city designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO2, methane, and water pollution. Ideally, a sustainable city powers itself with renewable sources of energy, creates the smallest possible ecological footprint, and produces the lowest quantity of pollution possible. It also uses land efficiently; composts used materials, recycles or converts waste-to-energy. If such practices are adapted, overall contribution of the city to climate change will be none or minimal below the resiliency threshold. Urban (green) infrastructure, resilient and hydrologically and ecologically functioning landscape, and water resources will constitute one system. Adapted from R. Register UC-Berkeley Currently 200 Chinese urban developments claim to be ecocity (USA Today) Definition/Vision of an Ecocity:

15 4 Rs, 3 Ss and 2 Ts Reduce, Reclaim, Reuse and Restore - 4 Rs 1. Reduce - Water and energy conservation 2. Reclaim 1. Treat for safe discharge into environment – TMDL 2. Reclaim energy (heat), nutrients 3. Reuse after additional treatment 4. 4 th R – Restore water bodies as a resource Separate, Sequester and Store- 3 Ss 1. Separate Blue, White, Gray, Yellow, and Black Water 2. Sequester GHGs and remove/detoxify toxics 3. Store reclaimed water on the surface and/or underground Toilet to Tap – 2 Ts (is it needed?) o Reclamation with or without 3S for potable reuse

16 COF Criteria Based on World Wildlife Fund One Planet Liv ing WATER – Reduce water demand by 50% from the national (state) average Water conservation (more efficient water fixtures), xeriscape) Using additional sources (stormwater, desalination) SOLID WASTE – No solid waste to landfill Reclamation and reuse ENERGY – Carbon neutrality Minimization or elimination use of fossil fuels Renewable energy sources Passive energy savings (Energy STAR) Water conservation (reduction of pumping energy, CO 2 emissions Energy and resource recovery from water, used water and solids SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION HEALTHY LIFE AND HAPPINES

17 Source Steve Moddemeyer Nested semi-autonomous Buildings Energy efficient, water saving Neighborhoods Surface drainage Water reuse (irrigation, toilets, etc.) Cities Resource recovery Water Energy Nutrients

18 Renewable Energy 1.4. MW Voltaics array in Sonoma County Wind turbines in Dongtan Household voltaicsPassive energy sources

19 Xeriscape – use of native plants (or not thirsty grasses) With native plants there is almost no irrigation water use Aesthetically pleasing Flagstaff (AZ) landscape Prairie grass and native flower landscape

20 Urban Best Management Practices with LID Concepts are an Integral Part of the COFs Green Roofs Save energy and store water Rain gardens Infiltrate and treat runoff Porous pavement Infiltrate, store and treat runoff Ponds and wetlands Store, treat and infiltrate runoff Courtesy City of Seattle Courtesy of AquaTex Sci. Consulting

21 Urban Water Body Restoration and Daylighting are Important Lincoln Creek in MilwaukeeDayligthted Zhuan River in Beijing Kallong River in Singapore Courtesy CDM Courtesy PUB Singapore Courtesy Beijing Hydraulic Research Institute After Before After Photos V. Novotny

22 Water centric (LID) drainage in ecocities 1 st order streams Solar Panels Zhiangjiawo, PRC. Credit Herbert Dreiseitl, Hammarby Sjöstad Credit Malena Karlsson Dockside Greens, Credit AquaTex Sci. Consult. Berlin, Landseberger Tor. Credit Jack Ahern, U.Mass

23 Courtesy AquaTex, Victoria, BC Dockside Greens Ecocity, Victoria, BC Water reclamation plants providing clean effluent for ecological flow does not have to be far from the city Base flow can also be provided by o Groundwater inflows o Sump pumps in basements o Upstream streams o Cooling water o Condensate from AC o Stored urban runoff in ponds o Irrigation return flow None of the above should enter underground sanitary sewers

24 If water is needed for local reuse, sewers can also be a source Package and small high efficiency treatment units can be installed to provide locally water for: Ecological flow of restored streams Toilet flushing Landscape irrigation Street flushing Adapted from Asano et al. (2007) Idea: Concentrate used water for centralized resource recover y

25 ATERR – Generic anaerobic treatment and energy recovery reactor PS – primary settler MF microfiltration UV ultraviolet ST storage RO reverse osmosis NF nanofiltration Heat recovery

26 Reclaimed water could be used In applications currently using high quality water supplies toilet flushing landscape and agricultural irrigation street and car washing pavement cooling to reduce heat island effect For protecting aquatic ecosystems by providing ecological base flows For recharging groundwater to enhance available water and/or preventing subsidence of historic buildings built on wood piles; As cooling water As a source of potable water in areas and times of severe water shortages

27 Restored stream To aquifer

28 Grey water Brownwater Urine Solid waste Integrated Resource Recovery Facility = Water/Energy Machine Surface Water Ground Water Rain Water Energy Heat En. energy Potable Water Reclaimed non-potable Quality A,B,C Hygienized Sludge Nutrients Electric En. G,R,F X-S Credit Kala Vairavamoorthy

29 Characteristics of integrated resource recovery facility (IRRF) o More concentrated influent (COD > 1 000 mg/L desirable) o Urine may be separated in clusters (contains 50% of P and >75% N) in 1 % of flow – may be attractive in megalopoli of developing countries – Accra, Ghana) o Inflow and input contains sludge and other solids (shredded food and other organic solids). Other organic biodegradable solid waste may be trucked in (co-digestion) Because of high COD, conventional aerobic (energy demanding) activated sludge treatment is not feasible and should be replaced by anaerobic processes o Conventional sludge digester requires large detention and high concentrations of solids and COD and need a lot of energy o Use Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor

30 Energy from used water and sludge Heat recovered by heat pumps Pyrolysis Biogas from anaerobic processes Digester Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor Hydrogen fuel cell Microbial fuel cell Types of gas Biogas 1 Household waste Biogas 2 Agrifood industry Natural gas Composition 60% CH 4 33 % CO 2 1% N 2 0% O 2 6% H 2 O 68% CH 4 26 % CO 2 1% N 2 0% O 2 5 % H 2 O 97.0% CH4 2.2% CO 2 0.4% N 2 0.4 % other Energy content kWh/m 3 6.17.511.3

31 Energy use in the urban water cycle Water end consumers CaliforniaGermany kWh/m 3 kWh/cap.yrkWh/m 3 kWh/cap.yr WaterSupply, conveyance 0.00-1.0600-1060.12-1.135-50 Treatment0.03-4.233-423 Distribution0.18-0.3218-321.26 Heat used by consumer in household for heating water for baths, kitchen, laundry ~11~2000~21~950 2 Used water collection and treatment0.29-1.2229-1220.39-0.8332-75 Total average energy use (without heating) 365 1 Meda et al., Chapter 2 in Lazarova et al (2012) Water Energy Interactions in Water Reuse, IWA Publishing, London 2 Energy for water heating per capita/(municipal water consumption)

32 There is not enough energy in used water alone ENERGY POTENTIAL - Daily production per capita COD per capita unit load (including in-sink grinders) 110 g minus COD in the effluent (5%) 105 g Methane produced 0.4 L/g of COD removed 43 L of CH 4 Methane energy 9.2 W-hr/L of CH 4 0.4 kW-hr TOTAL ENERGY POTENTIAL146 kW-hr/year TOTAL AVEGAGE ENERGY USE RELATED TO MUNICIPAL WATER USE (WITHOUT HEATING) 365 kW-hr/capita-year

33 PERCENT OF TOTAL MSW To: co-digestion, Include also manure, glycols & other biodegradable wastes To: pyrolysis or recycle To: recycle 12.4 13.9 13.4 28.5 8.4 9.0 4.6 3.4 US EPA : Total MSW 225x10 6 Tons/yr = 2 kg/cap-day 6.4

34 CODIGESTION Typical biodegradable solid (food and yard) recoverable waste production in the US is about 0.5 kg/cap-day that can be codigested with the sludge Codigestates: Food waste, organic deicing fluids, yard waste, oil and hydraulic fluids, meat production waste, yeast, algae produced by CO 2 and nutrients from wastewater and many others Solar and wind energy can be implemented in IRRF and in clusters to provide more energy for heating the reactors and buildings and (in the future) to enhance fermentation and steam methane/carbon monoxide reforming to hydrogen Waste (PS and/or WAS) Co-digestates Biogas PS-Primary Sludge WAS-Waste Activated Sludge Credit Dan Zitomer


36 Examples of new technologies Microbial fuel cell Converts organic biomass directly into electricity (from Rabaey and Verstraete, 2005) Bioelectrochemically Assisted Microbial Reactor (BEAMR) Converts organic biomass directly into hydrogen by adding small electricity to the reactor (from Liu, Grot and Logan, 2005) 95 % energy recovery from produced acetate

37 Kim et al. (2011) EST 45:576-581 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor BIOGAS CH 4 + CO 2 EFFLUENT EXCESS SOLIDS TWO STEP ANAEROBIC FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR WITH MEMBRANE Contains powdered activated carbon BASED ON LETINGA UASB Reactor 0.4 L CH4/g COD removed 9.2 kW-hr/m 3 of methane

38 Reverse osmosis Microfiltration, courtesy SiemensUV radiation It could be energy demanding

39 Hydrogen Fuel Cells Convert Biogas to Energy More Efficiently and Cleanly Than Combustion Installed in Glashusett in Hammarby Sjöstad Overall efficiency Hydrogen to electricity 65% With heat recovery 85%

40 Heat recovery from used water What is the heat or cooling energy equivalent of the energy extracted by the heat pump from a volume V =1 m 3 of used water with the temperature differential between incoming and leaving water ΔT = 12 o C. Coefficient of performance of the heat pump varies between 2 – 5. The specific heat of water is C p = 4.2 J/(g o C). Mass of 1 m 3 of water is ρ=1000 kg/m 3 = 10 6 g/m 3. Energy extracted from 1 m 3 of water is then E ac = V ρ ΔT C p = 1[m 3 ] x 10 6 [g/m 3 ] x 12 [ o C] x 4.2 [J/ g o C] = 50.4 x 10 6 J = 50.4 MJ = 50.4 MJ/(3.6 MJ/kW-hr) = 13.95 kW-hr If COP = 4 then the energy applied to extract the heat (cooling) from 1 m 3 corresponding to the 12 o C temperature change will become E ap = E ac /COP = 13.95 kW-hr/4 = 3.48 kW-hr. And the net energy gain is ΔE = E ac - E ap = 13.95 – 3.48 = 10.47 kW- hr/m 3

41 Picture source James Barnard Struvite – Ammonium magnesium phosphate Adding magnesium hydroxide increases pH and precipitates ammonium and phosphorus as struvite pH can be adjusted by sequestering CO 2 produced in the treatment process or energy production Credit Kurita Industries Upflow fluidized bed reactor

42 Growing algae fed by nutrients from used water and produced CO 2 yields more energy and bio-fuel and sequesters carbon Biofuel can be used in diesel engines without modifications Micro-algae offers best prospects While crops yield 0.5 to 1.5 m 3 /ha- year, algae can yield 50 to 200m 3 /ha-year Algae sequester CO 2 Algal Farm – Source ENERGY RANT Source James Barnard, Clarks lecture

43 A. Energy from Concentrated Used Water recovered by anaerobic treatment B. Energy from Co-digestion of Sludge and Other High Concentration Liquid Organic Waste and Food Solids C. Energy from Pyrolysis of Organic Solids (waste wood, wood chips, cardboard, etc.) D. Heat recovery from effluent and biogas conversion to energy E. Nutrient recovery


45 DRYING CH 4 +CO 2 CO+H 2 HEAT BIOFUEL CHAR MgO Air TF MF UV PS(Optional) DIGESTER UASB R Pyrolysis Belt Filter Struvite Thickener Condensate EFFLUENT TO REUSE CO 2 Gas Storage CO 2 Electricity Engine Generator METHANE/SYNGAS BASED IRRF BIOFUEL Input A Input B Input C Acid to adjust pH CH 4 CO 2


47 H+H+ DRYING S-M-CO-R HEAT BIOFUEL CHAR H2H2 CO 2 MgO Air TF MF UV PS(Optional ) BEAMR UASBR Pyrolysis Belt Filter UFBR Struvite Thickener Condensate EFFLUENT TO REUSE HYDROGEN BASED IRRF CO+H 2 CH 4 CO 2 for pH adjustment and sequestering Input A Input B Input C HEAT EXTREACTION


49 Dockside Greens, BC (courtesy P. Lucey)Hammarby Sjöstad (courtesy Malena Karlsson) Masdar (UAE). Courtesy Foster and Associates Qingdao Ecoblocks, courtesy Prof. H. Fraker UC-B

50 Conclusions US has one of the highest per capita urban energy footprint Low density urban centers High automobile use Great reliance on fossil fuel (primarily coal) power production Adopting and adapting the ecocity guidelines are significantly increasing production from renewable carbon free sources Water conservation is effective Biogas conversion to electricity or hydrogen with carbon sequestering is effective Wind turbines on each block Large inclusion of solar power Limiting automobile use, hybrids and electric pug-ins are very effective Heat recovery from used water More efficient appliances and heating (e.g., heat pumps) The goal of net zero carbon footprint is achievable by 2030 even in the US

51 Retrofit to the future Begin with satellite water/energy recovery cluster plants and implement efficiently on-site reuse Develop resilient and pleasing landscape drainage for clean water flows Combined sewers will become obsolete and current sewers oversized. Fit new plastic pipes into sewers and lease the excess space to phone, electricity and cable companies Implement solar and wind energy in clusters and in private homes – connect to smart energy grid Focus on development of efficient public transportation Convert existing regional WWTP into IRRF accepting both concentrated sewage and organic solids and sell the products and energy The existing capacity is far greater than that needed in the future for the same number of people

52 Acknowledgment: Jack Ahern, University of Massachusetts CDM – Smith (Paul Brown) CH2M-Hill (Glen Daigger, Masdar team) IWA COF Steering Committee Atelier Herbert Dreiseitl W. Patrick Lucey, AquaTex Scientific Consulting PUB Singapore + many others

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