Presentation on theme: "Water Resources in Urban Settings: the Case of the City of Jeddah"— Presentation transcript:
1Water Resources in Urban Settings: the Case of the City of Jeddah Amro Mohamed ElfekiKing Abdulaziz University, JeddahSOWACOR workshop Oct. 2008
2General Outline Water Classification in KSA. Water Statistics in KSA: Availability and Consumption.Overview on The City of Jeddah:Hydrological Settings.Rainfall Pattern.Simulation.Water Resources Issues:Floods.Domestic Water Supply and Drainage Systems.Groundwater Level Rise.Wastewater Lakes.Coastal Pollution.Outlook
3Classification of Water Resources in KSA Renewable Surface and Groundwater: Surface Runoff and Natural Recharge, and Shallow Aquifers.Non-Renewable Groundwater: Water in Deep Aquifers.Desalinated Water.Treated Wastewater.
4Distribution of Water Resources in KSA Abdulrazzak, et al. (1995)Source: Saudi Arabia Geological Survey websiteالمصدر: خطة التنمية الوطنية السابعة ( H1420–H1424)Source: 7th National Development Plan ( ) courtesy Dr. Ahmed Samy Alzaher
5Water Consumption in KSA المصدر: خطة التنمية الوطنية السابعة ( H1420–H1424)Source: 7th National Development Plan ( ) courtesy Dr. Ahmed Samy Alzaher
6Jeddah (The Bride of The Red Sea) The city of Jeddah is one of the major cities in KSA.Located on east coast of the Red Sea.Population ~ 2.6 million.Area ~ 1200 Km2Extends ~ 45Km along the coastJeddah is an industrial, commercial, educational and touristic city.Mohorjy, (2001) Alternative Solutions and Mitigation Measures of Sewerage System, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Inter. Journal of Environmental Studies 58:
7Hydrological SettingJeddah is located between two major wadis: Wadi Fatima and Wadi Usfan with some local wadis that make Jeddah basin.Climate is arid, very hot with high rate of humidity.Rainfall is scarce.Rainfall period: from November to April.Al-Sefry and Sen (2006) Groundwater Rise Problem and Risk Evaluation in Major Cities of Arid Lands—Jeddah Case in KSA, Water Resou. Management 20:91-108
10Floods: Wadi Al-Lith (Case Study) Station J-417Station J-418Wadi Al-Lithالمصدر :حسين حمزة ،أطلس المملكة العربية السعودية،دارأكسفورد للطباعة والنشر،1980مAl-Mestihi, F.(2008) Flood Studies in Wadi Al-Lith, Graduation Project.Source: Saudi Arabia Dames & Moore Report
11Rainfall-Runoff Characteristics Event 14 June 1987
12Rainfall-Runoff Modeling Al-Ahmdi, F.(2005).Rainfall-runoff modeling in arid regions using geographical information systems and remote sensing: case study;western region of saudi arabia, MSc. KAU.
13Floods in Cities and Highways Rain Event on H (2008)Rain Event on HBisha FloodRain Event on ~1426H (2005)
14Water Supply and Drainage Systems Most houses in Jeddah have two underground reservoirs, one for water supply and the other for wastewater (septic tank or cesspool).Municipality water is pumped to the water supply reservoir through a water supply network.The water supply reservoir is connected by pumps to deliver the water to several reservoirs on the roof of the house.Reservoirs on the roof, delivers water to the apartments through a system of pipes under gravity.
15Water Supply and Drainage Systems (Cont) The old city of Jeddah is served by a wastewater network facility.Houses in the new districts use septic tanks. The drainage system in the houses is a network of sewer pipes that leads to the underground wastewater reservoir (septic tank).When the reservoir is full, a sewage truck is called to pump out the sewage and transport it either to the nearest sewage treatment plant or directly to the sewage pond.
16Groundwater Level Rise Reasons for Groundwater Level RiseLeakage from Water Supply Piping System.Leakage form Underground Storage Tanks.Leakage from Cesspools and Transportation.Rainfall Recharge.Subsurface Inflow.Landscape Irrigation.Hydrogeological Influence.Basamed (2002). Hydrochemecal study and bacteriological effect on groundwater in the northern part of Jeddah district, MSc.Faculty of Earth Sciences, kauSefry and Sen (2006) Groundwater Rise Problem and Risk Evaluation in Major Cities of Arid Lands—Jeddah Case in KSA, Water Resou. Management 20:
17Groundwater Level Rise (Cont.) Consequences of Groundwater Rise:Flooding of house basements.Deterioration of roads and highways.Damage of building foundations.Soil Contamination.Offensive smell.Breeding of mosquitoes.Basamed (2002). Hydrochemecal study and bacteriological effect on groundwater in the northern part of Jeddah district, MSc.Faculty of Earth Sciences, kau Al-Sefry and Sen (2006) Groundwater Rise Problem and Risk Evaluation in Major Cities of Arid Lands—Jeddah Case in KSA, Water Resou. Management 20:
18Groundwater Level Rise (Cont.) Abu Rizaizah et al., (1987, 1990, 1997) they predicted the water consumption will be 465 lit/capita/day and will cause groundwater level rise in the range cm/year.The out come of the study by Basamed (2002): the average groundwater level rise is 10 cm/year.Study by Mohorjy and Khan (2006) mentioned that the groundwater level is rising at an alarming rate of 50 cm/year.Basamed (2002). Hydrochemecal study and bacteriological effect on groundwater in the northern part of Jeddah district, MSc.Faculty of Earth Sciences, kauAl-Sefry and Sen (2006) Groundwater Rise Problem and Risk Evaluation in Major Cities of Arid Lands—Jeddah Case in KSA, WaterResou. Management 20:Abu Rizaizah et al. (1987, 1990,1997). Groundwater rise problem in south, north, Jeddah, final report , Water and Sewage Dept., of Western Region in Saudi Arabia
19Sewage Lakes In Jeddah there are three sewage lakes: Al-Arbaeen Lake near downtown.Al-Amanah Lake near downtown.Briman Lake (Musk Lake) in the east of Jeddah highway.Jeddah municipality has taken actions to replenish the water in Al-Arbaeen and Al-Amanah lakes using air pumps and the lakes are undergoing a major rehabilitation projects, and the Briman lake is currently under way (Khalid Aqeel, deputy mayor for services: Arab News, Tuesday 7 August 2007)
20Sewage Pond (Briman Lake) Location: ~25 Km to the east of Jeddah.~ 50,000 m3 /day are discharged to the lake.Volume is more than 10 million m3No outflow.Mohorjy and Khan(2006) Preliminary Assessment of Water Quality along the Red Sea Coast near Jeddah, SaudiArabia, Water International, vol 31(1), ppBasamed (2002). Hydrochemecal study and bacteriological effect on groundwater in the northern part of Jeddah district, MSc. Faculty of Earth Sciences, kau.
23Coastal Pollution Sources of Coastal Pollution: Sewerage Discharge (Treated and Untreated).Chemical Pollution (Industrial Wastes).Thermal Pollution (Desalination Plants).Hyper-Saline Pollution (Desalination Plants).Land-filling (Resorts and buildings).Dredging (Resorts and buildings).Oil Pollution (Refiners, ships, and fishing boats).Refuse: (Plastic, wood, papers, glass, etc.)
24Water Quality along the Coast Mohorjy and Khan (2006)ParameterRange of ValuesB.O.Dmg/lC.O.Dmg/lPhosphorous (P)mg/lNitrate (NO3)mg/lSulfate (SO4)mg/lCoastal water is receiving considerable amount of pollutants.Highest levels of pollutants have generally been found at locations where there are lakes/creeks that receives direct wastewater inputs.Mohorjy and Khan(2006) Preliminary Assessment of Water Quality along the Red Sea Coast near Jeddah, SaudiArabia, Water International, vol 31(1), pp
25Refuse Sea bottom Seashore Source: Ahmed Solimany: Workshop on Environmental Pollution of Marine Beaches,
26OutlookSetting up a reliable data base for scientific research in various fields (continuous data recording, monitoring, satellite images, GIS maps, remote sensing, etc.)Setting up an experimental watershed (monitoring components in the hydrological cycle) for hydrological studies in Saudi Arabia and its region.Reformulation of hydrological models in (semi-) arid zones. How about ecological models?
27OutlookInnovative techniques for water desalination using solar energy.Developing techniques for water conservation.Developing technologies for wastewater treatment plants.Public awareness for environmental protection.