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Properties of Water The first image taken by humans of the whole Earth. Photographed by the crew of Apollo 8, the photo shows the Earth at a distance of.

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Presentation on theme: "Properties of Water The first image taken by humans of the whole Earth. Photographed by the crew of Apollo 8, the photo shows the Earth at a distance of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Properties of Water The first image taken by humans of the whole Earth. Photographed by the crew of Apollo 8, the photo shows the Earth at a distance of about 30,000 km. Space has no respect for North and South as the southern most tip of South America is at the top of the photo.

2 Boiling Point and Freezing Point Source: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

3 Boiling Points for Water at Altitude Source: NOAA

4 Density Water reaches a maximum density of 1.00 g/cm 3 at a temperature of 3.98 C. Water expands (becomes less dense) as it freezes

5 Rock Weathering The expansion of freezing water exerts sufficient force to fracture rock, and is a significant cause of rock weathering.

6 Waters Thermochemistry Specific heat and Latent heat of phase change, as they apply to water.

7 Units for Measuring Heat Joule The Joule is the SI system unit for measuring heat: calorie The calorie is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 Celsius degree British thermal unitBTU or Btu The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.

8 Specific Heat The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree Celsius.

9 Specific Heat The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree Celsius. Substance Specific Heat (J/g·K) Water (liquid) 4.18 Ethanol (liquid) 2.44 Water (solid) 2.06 Water (vapor) 1.87 Aluminum (solid) Carbon (graphite,solid) Iron (solid) Copper (solid) Mercury (liquid) Lead (solid) Gold (solid) 0.129

10 Specific Heat and Climate How does water contribute to the moderation of climate in coastal communities? SantaBarbaraCA

11 Calculations Involving Specific Heat c p c p = Specific Heat Q Q = Heat lost or gained T T = Temperature change OR m m = Mass

12 Energy and Phase Change Along LEG A water exists as a solid (ice), and the temperature increases as energy is absorbed. specific heat of ice The energy required to change the temperature of the ice is the specific heat of ice

13 Energy and Phase Change At 0 C a phase change begins: Moving from left to right along LEG B, ice is melting to form liquid water Moving from right to left along LEG B, liquid water is freezing to form ice Heat of Fusion The distance of LEG B along the Energy axis (x-axis) is known as the Heat of Fusion Note that temperature remains constant during a phase change!

14 Heat of Fusion The energy that must be absorbed in order to convert solid to liquid at its melting point The energy that must be removed in order to convert liquid to solid at its freezing point. The heat of fusion of water is 334 Joules/gram

15 Energy and Phase Change Once ice has completely melted, the temperature begins to increase again (LEG C), as the energy absorbed by water is no longer going toward changing the phase of the substance. specific heat The energy required to change the temperature of the liquid water is its specific heat

16 Energy and Phase Change At 100 C, a second phase change begins: Moving from left to right along LEG D, water is boiling to form water vapor Moving from right to left along LEG D, water vapor is undergoing condensation to form liquid water Heat of Vaporization The distance of LEG D along the Energy axis (x-axis) is known as the Heat of Vaporization Note that temperature remains constant during a phase change!

17 Heat of Vaporization The energy that must be absorbed in order to convert a liquid to gas at its boiling point. The energy that must be removed in order to convert a gas to liquid at its condensation point. The heat of vaporization of water is 2260 Joules/gram

18 Energy and Phase Change Once all of the liquid water has vaporized, the temperature begins to increase again (LEG E), as the energy absorbed by water is no longer going toward changing the phase of the substance. specific heat The energy required to change the temperature of the steam is its specific heat

19 Latent Heat – Sample Problem Problem: The heat of fusion of water is 334 J/g. How much energy is needed to convert 60 grams of ice at 0 C to liquid water at 0 C? Mass of ice Heat of fusion

20 Latent Heat – Sample Problem Problem: The molar heat of fusion of water is kJ/mol. How much energy is needed to convert 60 grams of ice at 0 C to liquid water at 0 C? Mass of ice Molar Mass of water Heat of fusion


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