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Ancient Civilizations: India and China

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Civilizations: India and China"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Civilizations: India and China

2 I. Ancient Indian Civilization

3 India

4 Ancient Indian Civilization
Saudi Arabia Ancient Indian Civilization begins in the Indus River Valley

5 Indian climate Monsoon-seasonal wind that brings large amounts of rain to India

6 Harappa- earliest Indian Valley civilization (Pakistan)
3300 BC

7 2500 BC Harappan Writing

8 Mohenjo-Daro- largest early Indian valley civilization
Near Pakistan Had furnaces, sewers, running water 3-4 story apartment houses

9 The great bath at Mohenjo-Daro
3000 BC The great bath at Mohenjo-Daro

10 Citadel- a fortress placed higher than the surrounding area

11 The Indo-Aryans in North India
Came into India from the North Mountain passes and conquered the Original inhabitants

12 Caste System People are divided into different classes
Brahmins at top of caste system Untouchables at the bottom of class system

13 Sanskrit- one of the earliest written languages -developed by people in India

14 The Vedas- sacred and holy writings of the ancient Indians

15 Hinduism Monism –all is God and God is all
Reincarnation-rebirth of the soul Karma-what you do affects the next life Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva – 3 main gods

16 Buddhism-another “Indian” religion

17 Buddha’s teachings The “enlightened One” 4 Noble truths
The eightfold path Deny self Nirvana is non-existence Did not accept Hindu polytheism

18 The Spread of Buddhism along the Silk Road

19 Mauryan Empire Emperor Asoka - renounced war after almost unifying India because he became a Buddhist

20 Indian culture Suttee and polygamy
Lower castes live short, difficult lives Upper classes are well off, well fed, educated, have more rights Valued Education Math – used Phi, number system of 1-9 Medical- used inoculation and antiseptics

21 Suttee- last recorded case in 1987

22 II. Ancient Chinese Civilization

23 Gobi desert

24 The Huang He or Yellow River-
powerful, life giving and life taking

25 Chinese ancient civilizations
China’s history is dominated by rivers: Huang He, Wei, Yangtze 1. Started off as Neolithic tribes farming in river valleys 2. Small towns and cities developed 3. Grew into Five Kingdoms ruled by a single family which is called a Dynasty

26 How to Outline Notes on 5 Chinese Dynasties

27 1. Xia Dynasty Until 1959, was considered a myth

28 2. Shang Dynasty Invented silk
Learned to use kaolin clay to make ceramics or “china” Writing based on pictures Calligraphy Spread Chinese culture across “China”

29 Shang artifacts

30 3. Zhou Dynasty Mandate of Heaven- God gives the Emperor
the right to rule Iron plow invented

31 Zhou warrior

32 4. Qin or “Chin” Dynasty Shi Huangdi, established the first
centralized empire by conquering all who objected Code of Qin Built Great Wall of China Brutal and harsh autocracy (dictatorship) “China” comes from his name

33 210 BC Shi Huangdi

34 Great Wall of China

35 5. Han Dynasty Emperor Wu Di - expanded Chinese empire
into other parts of Asia Established Civil Service system Pax Sinica The Silk Road

36 Han fashion

37 5 Chinese Dynasties Xia Shang Zhou Qin or Chin Han Mandate of Heaven
Was thought to be a myth Silk. china Mandate of Heaven Built great wall Brutal Silk Road calligraphy Plow “China” comes from Chin Civil service

38 Chinese Philosophy Yin and Yang Dualism – two sides
Strive for Balance and Harmony Three main philosophies to deal with yin and yang have come out of China

39 Confucius Wrote “The Analects” which was about creating Order
And Harmony among people and governments Family relations are number one 2. Respect one’s elders Reverence for the past and one’s ancestors 4. Government should be virtuous 551 BC

40 Daoism Laozi-the first Hippie Contemplation of nature
Cease striving and strife Rejection of politics and materialism Art as a means to harmony and balance

41 Legalism Riches and power matter and should be sought by any means available People are basically wicked and only harshness will be effective when dealing with them Severe laws and punishment are necessary to maintain peace

42 Chinese Science First accurate 365 days per year calendar
Discovered sunspots Invented seismograph Invented paper, sundial, water clock, printing, Acupressure and acupuncture Excellent embalmers

43 Seismograph

44 Lady Dai Best preserved mummy in the world Died of heart attack
“Elixir of immortality” 440’s BC

45 The End

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