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Landfarm Operator Certification Chapter 2: Waste Characterization.

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Presentation on theme: "Landfarm Operator Certification Chapter 2: Waste Characterization."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Landfarm Operator Certification Chapter 2: Waste Characterization

3 Waste Characterization

4 General Objective Explain the differences between special and solid wastes

5 Specific Objectives Identify types of special wastes and their properties Identify types of solid wastes and their benefits or concerns in land application

6 Special Waste High volume, low hazard waste remaining after processing of materials Waste from individuals, businesses, industries or municipalities

7 Special Wastes 1.Mining wastes 2.Utility wastes (fly ash, bottom ash, scrubber sludge) 3.Wastes from coal gasification (vitrified coarse solids residue, prilled or blocked sulfur)

8 Special Wastes 4.Sludge from water treatment facilities 5.Sludge from wastewater treatment facilities 6.Cement kiln dust 7.Gas and oil drilling muds 8.Oil production brines

9 Domestic Septage is not Special Waste Liquids or solids from 1.Septic tank 2.Cesspool 3.Portable toilet 4.Type III marine sanitation device 5.Anything similar that only receives sewer waste

10 Water Treatment Sludge Solids and liquids removed during the processing of potable water 1.Suspended and dissolved solids 2.Coagulants (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, ferric sulfate 3.Polymers 4.Lime 5.Metal oxides

11 Water Treatment Sludge Organic matter, soli particles, etc are filtered out during treatment Low in organics Low in nutrients beneficial to crops Only Calcium would be beneficial for pH control if land applied

12 Water Treatment Sludge May contain micronutrients that are beneficial Could also contain heavy metals which have to be tested for and could be detrimental 1.Cadmium 2.Lead 3.Copper 4.Nickel 5.Lead 6.Zinc

13 Wastewater Treatment Sludge Solids generated during wastewater treatment process Contains biological, chemical, and physical contaminants 93-99% liquid when initially removed form the process

14 Wastewater Treatment Sludge Solids generated during wastewater treatment process Contains biological, chemical, and physical contaminants 93-99% liquid when initially removed form the process

15 Wastewater Treatment Sludge Primary Sludge - raw sludge unstable and not suitable for land application Secondary Sludge – solids content is % after biological treatment and stabilization Activated Sludge – secondary sludge collected from settling tanks…contains bacteria cells stabilized organic matter and inorganic compounds

16 Wastewater Treatment Sludge Stabilized Sludge – secondary sludge after microbial processing or chemical addition Aerobic Sludge – activated sludge produced by injecting air Anaerobic Sludge – activated sludge produced by excluding air, heat may be added to speed reactions

17 Wastewater Treatment Sludge Chemically Stabilized Sludge – results form the addition of chemicals during secondary treatment Decrease biological activity Reduce pathogens Reduce odor Increase % solids Common in domestic waste treatment

18 Wastewater Treatment Sludge Dewatered Sludge – mechanically stabilized sludge with water removed 15-20% solids Belt, frame, and centrifuge presses are used to separate the solids

19 Wastewater Treatment Sludge 50% of wastewater sludge is organic dead microbe cells Contain nutrients for plant growth as well as heavy metals Some pathogens may remain, reduce pathogens before land applying

20 Wastewater Treatment Sludge Contains synthetic organic chemicals generated by households and industries E.P.A. reviews sewage sludge regulations every 2 years Contaminants of Emerging Concern are evaluated for possible land application 1.Pharmaceuticals 2.Personal Care Products

21 Fly Ash Fine mineral emitted into the smoke stack of coal fire boilers that contains 1.Phosphorus 2.Potassium 3.Calcium 4.Magnesium 5.Sulfur 6.Boron 7.Molybdenum

22 Fly Ash Can help neutralize soil pH Improve moisture holding capacity Fresh fly ash is toxic to plants Exposure to atmosphere prior to land application reduces salinity and toxicity to plants

23 Lime Scrubber Sludge Result of scrubbing sulfur dioxide from stack gases of coal fired power plants that use a liquid suspension of finely ground limestone Solids content 50% after holding ponds remove water Must be stabilized before land applying

24 Lime Scrubber Sludge Stabilize by adding 1.Lime 2.Fixing agents 3.Sodium silicate 4.Cement May contain fly ash

25 Lime Scrubber Sludge Mixing of the dried limestone scrubber sludge and fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium can help support vegetative growth Fresh sludge may be toxic and unstable and contain heavy metals

26 Fluidized Bed Combustion Waste Fine coal dust that burns in a bed of inert ash and ground limestone Air injected where the ground limestone reacts during coal combustion suspends the bed Fluidized Bed Combustion Waste is a fine, solid, granular material

27 Fluidized Bed Combustion Waste Contains calcium sulfite, unreacted lime, and metal oxides with high pH levels Moisture and heat convert the metal to metal hydroxides Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere stabilizes the material by forming carbonates

28 Fluidized Bed Combustion Waste Unstabilized FBCW should not be land applied Stabilized FBCW provides sulfur, calcium, and lime for pH adjustment which helps plant growth 10-40% lime value Transportation costs will limit BFCW as a liming agent

29 Gas and Oil Drilling Mud Fluids pumped into the borehole to lubricate and cool the drilling bit, float loose material, seal porous strata, and prevent the borehole from filling with water Most muds contain trace elements, petroleum residue, salt water components, and sources of alkalinity (barium sulfate, bentonite, chrome lignosulltonate, lignite, and sodium hydroxide)

30 Gas and Oil Drilling Mud Most is dewatered to >20% solids Soluble components are leached out and insoluble components remain in the cell with the drilling mud Mud is removed once it is deemed to pose little or no environmental hazard

31 Gas and Oil Drilling Mud Stabilized drilling mud is used as industry fill material Analysis for heavy metals as well as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons should be performed prior to land application

32 Oil Production Brines Result of water and oil separation in oil well When an injection well is not available for handling brines, it is considered a special waste by regulation High salt content and toxic to plants Analyze for sodium, chlorine, alkalinity and heavy metals before land applying

33 Solid Waste Discarded material that is not hazardous waste, special waste, coalmining waste, or agricultural waste Soil, sand, rock, and gravel are solid wastes Agriculture waste exemption applies to manure, crop, and crop residue

34 Solid Waste Solid or dissolved material in domestic or industrial water or wastewater while in process is regulated by Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

35 Cement Kiln Dust Fine granular solid material obtained from mixing several waste sources during cement manufacture Dust from stack scrubbers, grinding rock and shale, impurities before the raw product passes through the rotary kiln

36 Cement Kiln Dust Cement Kiln dust should be analyzed for hazardous waste content Has a high pH Can be mixed with biosolids to help with pathogen reduction The high pH decreases nitrogen content

37 Cement Kiln Dust After time the pH gets back to levels suitable for land application Analysis should be the same as biosolids with the addition of the alkalinity being checked

38 Food Wastes Results of food production, processing, and food supplement processing These include liquid and solid wastes Contain high Biological Oxygen Demand Some materials represent crop residues that are easily land applied

39 Food Wastes 1.Whey from cheese making and rejected milk 2.Starch, peels, and rejects from potato chips 3.Trimmings and rejects of vegetables and fruits from restaurants and grocery stores 4.Pomace from fruit processing 5.Tomato pulp from catsup 6.Hulls and skins from peanut processing 7.Dust and hulls from coffee grinding and oil seed extraction 8.Spent media from drug and food supplement manufacturing

40 Food Wastes Analyze for BOD concentrations and presence of chemicals used in processing Application to prevent decomposition resulting storage that leads to odors

41 Other Solid Wastes Sawdust, wood chips, and leaves Permit by Rule due to low potential for environmental harm No written application or authorization is required to land apply Permit by rule activities must comply with Environmental Performance Standards

42 Other Solid Wastes Setbacks from streams or other Waters of the Commonwealth should be observed Wood wastes can benefit soil conditions long term because they are very high in carbon compared to nitrogen content Nutrient magement should be intensified when wood wastes are applied

43 General Objective Explain the differences between special and solid wastes

44 Specific Objectives Identify types of special wastes and their properties Identify types of solid wastes and their benefits or concerns in land application

45 Landfarm Study Guide Chapter 1

46 1. Special Wastes are those materials of high volume and low hazard. A.True B.False 10

47 2. Sludge can be applied to the land in the form of: A.Liquid B.Semi-solid C.Solid dry D.All of the above 10

48 3. Which of the following is not a special waste? A.Utility waste B.Water treatment sludge C.Wood chips D.Cement kiln dust

49 4. Cement kiln dust can be combined with wastewater sludge to meet pathogen reduction requirements by decreasing pH. A.True B.False 10

50 5. Some of the microorganisms entering the treatment plant are regarded as. A.Pathogens B.Unreacted C.Coagulants D.Alkaline 10

51 6. A concern of relatively unprocessed food waste is the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) level of these wastes. A.True B.False 10


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