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Reminders: Not here last time? Send me an e-mail (paul.regular@mun.ca) so I can put you on the e-mail list Assignment 1 due on Monday Quiz on Monday and Friday – bring calculator; open book First Lab (Lab 2) is on Sept 18th

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bp t l m T Chapter 2 Quantities N e

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Quantity: five-part definition 1.Name 2.Symbol 3.Procedural Statement 4.Set of numbers collected into a vector 5.Units on a defined measurement scale Length l 14.5, 10.1, 15.9, 15.4, 14.1, 13.3, 16.1, 12.8, … cm (ratio) measurement scale (ratio)

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Types of Measurement Scales

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11110010100010010010001001001001001111100101100100100100010100010010100101001 01001001010010101010001010000100101001010010001010100101010010111101011011010 01010101001010100100111101011001101001010001010100000001011111010010000101101 00010100101000100000101101111111100101000100100100010010010010011111001011001 00100100010100010010100101001010010010100101010100010100001001010010100100010 10100101010010111101011011010010101010010101001001111010110011010010100010101 00000001011111010010000101101000101001010001000001011011111111001010001001001 00010010010010011111001011001001001000101000100101001010010100100101001010101 00010100001001010010100100010101001010100101111010110110100101010100101010010 01111010110011010010100010101000000010111110100100001011010001010010100010000 01011011111111001010001001001000100100100100111110010110010010010001010001001 01001010010100100101001010101000101000010010100101001000101010010101001011110 10110110100101010100101010010011110101100110100101000101010000000101111101001 00001011010001010010100010000010110111111110010100010010010001001001001001111 10010110010010010001010001001010010100101001001010010101010001010000100101001 01001000101010010101001011110101101101001010101001010100100111101011001101001 01000101010000000101111101001000010110100010100101000100000101101111111100101 00010010010001001001001001111100101100100100100010100010010100101001010010010 10010101010001010000100101001010010001010100101010010111101011011010010101010 01010100100111101011001101001010001010100000001011111010010000101101000101001 01000100000101101111000010110100010100101000100000101101111111100101000100100 10001001001001001111100101100100100100010100010010100101001010010010100101010 10001010000100101001010010001010100101010010111101011011010010101010010101001 00111101011001101001010001010100000001011111010010000101101000101001010001000

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Ordinal 1 st 2 nd 3 rd No information on the magnitude of the difference

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Interval Direction Lat/Long Units known, but zero does not mean nothing Temperature ( o C)

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Mass Ratio LengthVolume Units and zero known Can take ratios

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Ratio vs. Interval o C vs. K Zero in K means no heat Zero in o C is freezing point of water

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Ratio vs. Interval o C/ o F vs. ft/cm 50 o F = 10 o C, 41 o F = 5 o C 50 o F / 41 o F = 1.2 10 o C / 5 o C = 2 2 1.2 6 ft = 182.88 cm, 2 ft = 60.96 cm 6 ft / 2 ft = 3 182.88 cm / 60.96 cm = 3 3 = 3

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Methods and scale type Measurement procedure scale type – Example Record presence/absence of copepods in diet sample Nominal Count number of copepods in diet sample Ratio Scale type statistics – Example Nominal logistic regression Ratio (count) Poisson regression

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Recording quantities Detailing methods is at the heart of the scientific method

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Computer assisted data collection Becoming more common Fewer errors, better resolution

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Recording Data DATECANADA GOOSEBLACK DUCK 27-May-101,3 5 09-Jun-102,5 2,3 10 Save data in common formats (e.g..txt,.csv) Avoid matrix-format: … …

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Recording Data Save data in common formats (e.g..xls,.txt,.csv) Use flat-format: … datespeciescount 27/05/2010Canada Goose1 27/05/2010Herring Gull1 27/05/2010Great Black-backed Gull1 27/05/2010American Crow1 27/05/2010Savannah Sparrow1 27/05/2010Herring Gull1 27/05/2010Great Black-backed Gull1 27/05/2010Savannah Sparrow1 27/05/2010Herring Gull1 27/05/2010Great Black-backed Gull1 27/05/2010Herring Gull1 27/05/2010Herring Gull1

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Error checking Review your data Get a second person to review your data Plot and check Transcription error: 167 entered for 16.7

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Displaying data Tables Archival Provide summaries Graphs Display pattern Discover pattern Burrow Temperature bT ( o C) Specific Metabolic Rate E (kcal/kg/day) 00.2 11.8 23.2 36.3 47.6 510.5 612.1

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Displaying data Burrow Temperature bT ( o C) Specific Metabolic Rate E (kcal/kg/day) 00.2 11.8 23.2 36.3 47.6 510.5 612.1 Fully Defined Quantities Names Units Numbers Symbols (optional)

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Now take a second to read Table 5.2 in the lecture materials

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Critique this graph

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Critique this table

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Ratio continued… Utility 3 years ? 30% Can do fancy calculations

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N t = N i e -Dt Extend notation and generate cool plots % remaining see Box 2.1 Initial pop. size Future pop. size N i = 1000 Ratio continued… Utility

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N t = N i e -Dt Predict trend in student registration % remaining see Box 2.1 Initial pop. size Future pop. size Ratio continued… Utility

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This example highlights four utilities 1.Accurate computation 2.Interpret symbolic notation 3.Combine to make new units 4.Permit analysis across multiple scales N t = N i e -Dt Ind. = Ind. year/year …well kinda

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3.Combine to make new units 1 hectare = 10,000 m 2 = 100 m x 100 m 4.Permit analysis across multiple scales Ratio continued… Utility 100 m 50 m 25 m

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Ecologists often use transformations …but think about what youre doing Note on transformations 100 m

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NOTE: Supplementary units defunct since 1995 m s K A mol cd kg SI Base Units Seven standard base units – facilitate comparable results Unit abbreviations

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Derived units Combinations of the base units Which derived units have you used? Unit (eg.) Acceleration (m·s -2 ) Area (m 2 ) Energy (N·m; J) Force(kg·m·s -2 ; N) Frequency (s -1 ; Hz) Light intensity(W·m -2 ) Power(J·s -2 ; W) Pressure(N·m -2 ; Pa) Velocity(m·s -1 ) Volume(cm 3 ; cc) Wavelength(m) Others? (eg.)

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Standard multiples Is it a coincidence the base is 10 and humans have 10 fingers and toes? TextSymbolFactorExample teraT1000000000000TW gigaG1000000000GW megaM1000000MW kilok1000kW hectoh100hW 1W decid0.1dW centic0.01cW millim0.001mW microμ0.000001μWμW nanon0.000000001nW

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Unconventional Units It is sometimes useful to use non-standard units Read this excerpt from the notes: If our interest were in the foraging ranges of owls, we might decide to define the range in biological terms, based on the minimum area (in standard units) required to meet daily energy requirements. If we define this area as one unit, we can then examine the problem of foraging area needed by a pair of owls to successfully produce 1 chick, 2 chicks, and so on, relative to the number of minimum foraging units. To phrase this as a question, if 1 owl requires a certain area to meet its own energy needs, then how many of these units will be needed by 2 owls to raise 1 chick? By defining a new unit, we can address this problem with biologically meaningful units, rather than with arbitrary units.

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Unconventional Units Number (#) of entities commonly used in biology – Base pairs, birds, branches, cells, etc. Consequently, unconventional exponents are also common – Offspring · year -1, fitness, etc.

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Dimensions Dimensions are a way of thinking about quantities based on similarity – Euclidean Dimensions(L, L 2, L 3 ) – Mechanical Dimensions(M, L, T) – Composite dimensions(M·L 2 ·T -2 ) – Additional dimensions($, A) – Entities(#) – Fractal dimensions(L D )

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Euclidean Dimensions(L, L 2, L 3 ) cm m yards cm 2 hectares acres cc m 3 yards 3 Related by an integral change in exponent (L 1, L 2, L 3 )

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Mechanical Dimensions(M, L, T) MASS LENGTHTIME kglbstonesmfathomftspearlengthshyears light-yearsmillennia

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Composite dimensions(L·T -1 ) 246810121416 Distance (cm) Ant traveled 16 cm in 2 seconds 8 cm · sec -1 L·T -1 What are the dimensions of the ants momentum? 3 mg · 8 cm · sec -1 = 24 mg · cm · sec -1 M·L·T -1

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Additional dimensions ($, A) Gameboard Economics Measuring electric eel amps

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Entities (#) Biochemical entities: ions, atoms, molecules (including proteins) Genetic entities: chromosomes, genes, alleles, mutations Cellular entities: nuclei, mitochondria, cells Behavioural entities: attempts, successes, modal action patterns (MAPs) Population entities: interacting species Community level entities: number of taxa (species, order, etc), number of trophic levels.

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Entities (#) Useful units: Pairs Kilocounts Megacounts Less useful units: Mol Dozen Murder School

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Fractal dimensions(L D ) Fractal dimensions are related to one another by fractional exponents L D where 1 D 2 More convoluted than a straight line (D = 1), but not so convoluted as to fill a plane (D = 2). Convolution increases as D 2

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So why are fractals important? Fractals are common in nature

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