4 Rules to Naming P.A. IonsChange the suffix of the root ion from –ate to –ite when you subtract one OxygenExample:Sulfate = SO42-Subtract 1 Oxygen = SO32- = sulfite
5 Rules to Naming P.A. Ions2. Change the prefix to hypo- and the suffix to -ite when subtracting one Oxygen from the -ite form. Example: Sulfite = SO32- Subtract 1 oxygen = SO22- hyposulfite
6 Rules to Naming P.A. Ions3. Change the prefix to per- and the ending to -ate when you add one Oxygen to the root form. Sulfate = SO42- Add one oxygen = SO52- = persulfate
7 More Root PA IonsBromate BrO3-Iodate IO3-Manganate MnO3-
8 Additional Rules to Naming Change an Oxygen to a Sulfur, add the prefix thio- to the Root ion nameExample:Sulfate = SO42-Thiosulfate = add 1 sulfur and subtract 1 oxygenThiosulfate = SO S -1 O = S2O32-
9 Adding Counter Ions Adding Hydrogen ions (H+) Add the word Hydrogen to the prefixFollows the numbering prefix systemExample:Hydrogen Sulfate (Charges are conserved)H+ + SO42- = HSO4-Dihydrogen Sulfate (Charges are conserved)2H+ + SO42- = H2SO4
10 Adding Counter Ions Lets try another one together Hydrogen Phosphate H+ + PO43- = HPO4⃝ -1 positive charge + 3 negative charges = 2 negative net charge1 + (-3) = 2-H+ + PO43- = HPO42 -
11 Adding Counter Ions Lets try one more with Hydrogen 2H+ + PO43- = H2PO4⃝ -2 positive charges + 3 negative charges equals 1 negative net charge2 + (-3) = -12H+ + PO43- = H2PO41 -What is the name of this compound?
12 Adding Counter IonsCounter Ions from group 1A, 2A & 3A follow the following rule:Name of element + name of Polyatomic anionCharges must be conservedExample:Sodium PhosphateNa PO43-Na3PO4Note*- It takes 3 positive charges to conserve 3 negative charges
13 Adding Transition Metals Transition metals can have different oxidation states (levels of electron deficiency) stated as roman numeralsExample: Fe (I), Fe (II), Fe (III)Fe (I) = Fe1+Fe (II) = Fe2+Fe (III) = Fe3+
14 Adding Transition Metals Charges must be conserved (ions must add up to zero net charge if not explicitly stated)Example: Iron (II) SulfateFe2+ + SO42- = Fe2(SO4)2Subscripts can be reducedAnswer = Fe(SO4)
15 Adding Transition metals Charge, again, must be conservedExample: Gold (III) NitrateAu3+ + NO3- = ?It takes three Nitrates to counterbalance one Gold ion3 positive charged + 3 x (-1) = 0Answer = Au(NO3)3
16 Acids / Bases Three types of Acids Lewis Acid Brǿnstead Acid We will focus on this oneArrhenius Acid
17 Brǿnstead Acid In a reaction, a molecule that gives a H+ ion. Example: HCl + NaOH NaCl + HOHCommon acidsSulfuric Acid H2SO4Phosphoric Acid H3PO4Hydrochloric Acid HClNitric Acid HNO3
18 How to name acidsAcid general equation: HnX Where H = Hydrogen n = subscript number X = anion (could be one atom or a P.A. anion)The key to naming is determining what X is.
19 How to name acids If the anion ending is –ide then you must: Add hydro- to the prefixChange the suffix from –ide to –icAdd the word acid to the end of the word.Example:HCl The anion is ChlorideUsing the rules, it becomes hydrochloric acid
20 Another Example HF Using normal naming, it would be Hydrogen Fluoride Now switch to make it an acidWhat is the answer? Hydrofluoric acid
21 Naming Acids If the X anion ends in –ate then you must Change the –ate ending to –icAdd the word acid to the endExample:H2SO4 = Dihydrogen SulfateAnswer: Sulfuric acid
22 Naming Acids If the X anion ends in –ite then you must Change the –ite ending to –ousAdd the word acid to the endExample:H2SO3 = Dihydrogen SulfiteAnswer: Sulfurous acid
23 Bases Three types of bases Lewis base Brǿnstead base We will focus on this oneArrhenius base
24 Brǿnstead base A base that accepts a H+ ion Example: HCl + NaOH NaCl + HOHBase in blueCommon Bases:Hydroxide (OH-)Ammonia (NH3)Water H2O
25 Naming a base Follows the same rules as naming other ionic compounds Example: Al3+ + OH- Al(OH)3Answer: Aluminum Hydroxide
26 Naming Molecular Compounds These compounds are not ionic, but rather they are covalentExample:CH4SiF4H2OC2H6O
27 How to name molecular compounds Determine if a compound is ionic or molecular (based on electronegativity)Start with the first elementGive its alphanumeric number prefixGive its nameGo to the second elementGive its alphanumeric number
28 How to name molecular compounds 4. Repeat Step 3 until all atoms are taken into account.On the last atom, add the ending –ide.
29 Prefixes Mono = 1 Nona = 9 Di = 2 Deca = 10 Tri = 3 Undeca = 11 Tetra = 4Dodeca = 12Penta = 5Trideca = 13Hexa = 6Tetradeca =14Hepta = 7(we will go up to 19)Octa = 8
30 Examples C8H18 Answer = octacarbon Answer – octacarbon octadecahydride Go to the next atomCount the first elementCompound has 8 carbon atomsCompound has 18 Hydrogen atomsAdd the prefix octadeca to the word hydrogenPut the prefix octa- in front of the atom carbonSince Hydrogen is the last element in the compound, switch the ending to –ide.
32 Law of Definite Proportions A compound must have the same ratio of atoms in it at all times.Example: H2OThere must be 2 Hydrogen atoms for every 1 oxygen atom.
33 Mass & the law of definite proportions Similarly, the mass of each atom in the compound must also follow the same ratio.Example: H2OIf we have 2 grams of hydrogen, we must always have 16 grams of OxygenThe ratio is always 1:8 for water
34 Example:You have to test one unknown liquid to see if it is water. You have a sample of water that you know (standard).Is the unknown compound water?HOKnown4.0 g32.0 gUnknown2.0 g
35 Example (Cont) Set up the ratios: Does 1/8 = 1/16? H O Known 4.0 g Unknown2.0 gCompound 1 (known)Compound 2 (unknown)H4.0 g2.0 gO32.0 g