2Earthquake, Cyclone etc. DisasterDisaster occurs due to destruction of environment, which is caused by extraordinary natural phenomena or human induced hazards, resulting in human suffering and hardship beyond coping and recovery unless an external aid is introduced. To reduce the disaster probability, one has to decrease the vulnerability.For example :Earthquake, Cyclone etc.
3For example: Volcano,Cyclone, Earthquake, Flood, Drought etc. HazardAn event which causes a situation which can be dangerous to people or property if occurred in the populated area.For example: Volcano,Cyclone, Earthquake, Flood, Drought etc.
4VulnerabilityCondition in the community, which leave it open to suffer from the effects of a disaster.For example:Houses on the seacoast in the cyclone prone area.Village situated in the flood prone area.
5CapacityCapacities are those positive condition or abilities which increase a community’s ability to deal with hazards.
6RiskThe probability/ likelihood of a disaster happening.
7The ingredients of Disaster Relationship H*V-C=RHazard*Vulnerability-Capacity= RiskDisaster is the realization of the Risk
8“Mitigation" means measures aimed at reducing the risk, impact or effects of a disaster or threatening disaster situation;“Preparedness" means the state of readiness to deal with a threatening disaster situation or disaster and the effects thereof;
9There are two types of disasters: A. Natural disaster .There are three type of Natural disaster:1.Wind – Cyclone, storm, tidal Waves.2.Water – Flood, Cloud burst, Cold Wave , Heat Wave, Flash Flood , Drought.3.Earth – Earthquake, landslides, Tsunami.B. Man- Induced disaster .1.Accidents- Rail, Road, Air, Sea, Building Collapse Ect2. Industrial Mishaps- Gas Leak, Explosion ect.3.Fire- Building, Coal Mines, Oil Fields ect.4.Forest Fire- Mainly tropical countries5.Contamination/Poisoning- Food, Water, Illicit Liquors ect.6. Terrorist Activities7.Ecological- Pollution (Air, Water , Noise) Sea level rise ect.8.Social- War, Riots, Hijacking, Civil Unrest
10Eartquake Intensity – Magnitude in Richter Scale Sl NoTypeCharacteristics of TremorsMgt in RichterIInstrumentalSeismographicVery LowIIFeebleSensitive (people)3.5IIISlight4.2IVModerateWalking, Loose objects4.3VRather StrongAwakened4.8VIStrongTrees sway ectVIIVery StrongCracks5.5—6.1VIIIDestructiveDamage to constructions6.2IXRuinousHouse collapse6.9XDisastrousGround Cracks7.0—7.3XIVery DisastrousDisrupts all services7.4—8.1XIICatastrophicTotal destructionAbove 8.1
15Disaster Risk Management Cycle Phases of Disaster Management 15
161.DISASTER RESPONSE:Activities that take place when a disaster strikes to reduce loss of life and to deliver relief as quickly as possible to the affected people.For example:Search and rescue.Need Assessment.Provide First Aid Services.Emergency food , water , medicines supply.Provision of temporary shelters & other relief supplies.Restoring family links.
172.RECOVERY(REHABILITATION) Measures taken after the disaster , to bring back the condition within the community to normal or even better than before.For example:Social Rehabilitationii. Economic Rehabilitationiii. Psychological Rehabilitation
183.Risk Reduction (Mitigation) Long term measure taken before a disaster to lessen its effect on the community.For example:Strengthening of existing building and infrastructuresRaised earth platform in flood prone areasTaking out insurance policesPlantation of drought resistant cropsBuild cyclone shelters, reinforcement of river banks in flood prone areasPublic awareness programsCommunity based health care/health promotion
194.Disaster Preparedness Measure design to enables a community to cope with and respond quickly and effectively to any further disaster. These activities should take before a disaster.For example:Assessment of the VCA of the community through mapping exercise.Develop early warning systemFormation of school disaster preparedness and response committee and planFirst aid, disaster preparedness & response training programmePropositioning of essential relief items in strategic locations for timely response
204.Disaster Preparedness f. Increasing community disaster awarenessg. Improving coordinationh. Disaster emergency needs assessment checklisti. Improving basic training skills.
21DRR, Scholl Safety Audit & Crisis Management DRR: Disaster Risk Reduction is aimed at long term Preparedness for any disaster, (Strategic Plan) School Safety Audit: Basically aimed at regular check and up-gradation of safety measures and state of preparedness , (A ready reckoner ) Crisis Management: Is process meant and designed to combat and respond during an emergency situation, (on site operation)