Presentation on theme: "HELCOM-BSRP Meeting on Ballast Waters"— Presentation transcript:
1 HELCOM-BSRP Meeting on Ballast Waters Chronology of Mnemiopsis and Beroe invasions to the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. Risk of Mnemiopsis invasion to the Baltic Sea.Aladin N.V. (Zoological Institute RAS) in co-operation with: Chuikov Yu.S. (Environment Protection Agency of Astrakhan Region), Panov V.E. and Plotnikov I.S. (Zoological Institute RAS)Klaipeda-Palanga, February 22-24, 2005
2 Caspian Sea regarding the largest lakes of the World In the brackets there is area in sq. km, area of the Aral Sea is given for 1960
3 Water bodies of the Palaeocaspian (by Aladin, Plotnikov, 2000) A – Balakhanian; B – Akchagylian; C – Postakchagylian; D – Apsheronian; E – Turkianian; F – Bakuvian; G – Venedian or Ushtalian; H – the Early Khazarian; I – the Late Khazarian; J – Atelian; K – the Early Khvalynian; L – Enotaevian; M – the Late Khvalynian; N – Mangyshlakian; O – the New Caspian; P – the present.
4 Changes in palaeohalinity of Pont-Aral-Caspian during last 15 mln Changes in palaeohalinity of Pont-Aral-Caspian during last 15 mln. years
5 Main parameters of the Caspian Sea Max. length 1204 kmMax. width 566 kmMean width 204 kmVolume km3Max. depth 1025 mMean depth 184 mArea km2The Northern Caspian Sea(huge estuary of Volga and Ural rivers)Volume 0.94%Area 27.73%Max. depth 10 mMean depth 6.2 mThe Middle Caspian Sea(Caspian Sea sensu stricta)Volume 35.39%Area 36.63%Max. depth 770 mMean depth mThe Southern Caspian SeaVolume 63.67%Area 35.64%Max. depth 1025 mMean depth 325 m
7 Average Ion Composition in the World Ocean, the Caspian Sea and River Volga According to our studies Baltic Sea water with salinity 5 g/l is equivalent to Caspian water with salinity 6.65 g/l and Baltic Sea water with salinity 8 g/l is equivalent to Caspian water with salinity g/l.
8 Mean salinity (g/l) on the surface in the Caspian Sea
15 Number of species in the Caspian Sea Derzhavin (1951) & Zenkevich (1963)476Chesunov (1978)~ 550Kasymov (1987)~ 950Dumont (1998)~ 1800Aladin et al. (2001)> 2000
16 Filming of Aurelia and Mnemiopsis by Kamakin & Ushivtsev in 1999
17 Mnemiopsis leidyiThe native habitat of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi is in temperate to subtropical estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North and South America, where it is found in an extremely wide range of environmental conditions.Winter low and summer high temperatures of 2ºC and 32ºC, respectively, and salinities of < 2 to 39 g/l.
18 Mnemiopsis spreading over Caspian Sea 199920002001
19 Beroe ovata Photograph is taken from Internet author and place of filming are unknown
20 Beroe ovata This photograph is taken by Dr Ahmet Kideys. Beroe ovata was caught near Istanbul.
22 Fragment of Beroe ovata stained with alcyan blue, 50 mg/l (fixatives - acetic acid 2.5% + formaldehyde 1.5%) Photograph is taken by Dr Igor Plotnikov
23 Fragment of Beroe ovata stained with alcyan blue, 50 mg/l (fixatives - acetic acid 2.5% + formaldehyde 1.5%) Photograph is taken by Dr Igor Plotnikov
24 Chronology of Mnemiopsis invasions to the Black Sea In the early 1980s, Mnemiopsis leidyi was accidentally introduced to the Black Sea, where it flourished and expanded into the Azov, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Caspian Seas.In November 1982 M. leidyi for the first time was found in Sudak Bay of the Black Sea.In 1986 M. leidyi was recorded again in the coastal area of north-western Black Sea.In 1987 Mnemiopsis appeared in the north-eastern, north-western coastal waters and in the Bosporus area.June-September 1988 M. leidyi was found everywhere, at an average biomass of 1 kg WW m-2 (40 g WW m-3) and average abundance of c. 310 m-2 (12.4 m-3).In autumn 1989, the greatest mean biomass ever in the open sea 4.6 kg WW m-2 (184 g m-3) and greatest abundance, 7,600 ind. m-2 (304 ind. m-3) were measured.
25 Chronology of Mnemiopsis invasions to the Sea of Azov August Mnemiopsis leidyi was observed in the Sea of Azov for the first time.In 1989 it was a peak of Mnemiopsis abundance there which coincided with the its peak in the Black Sea.Since 1990 Mnemiopsis abundance decreased and during following years it had inter-annual fluctuations in abundance and biomass. The organisms can only survive there during the warm seasons. It is being re-introduced every year in spring - summer months through the Kerch Strait.
26 Chronology of Mnemiopsis and probably Beroe invasions to the Caspian Sea Rumors about new jelly-fishes invasion to the Caspian Sea. It could be: Mnemiopsis, Beroe, or Aurelia.November Mnemiopsis leidyi was found for the first time in the Caspian Sea at the temperature ºC and salinity g/l.July 2000 M .leidyi was found everywhere in the Southern and Middle Caspian.September 2000 M .leidyi was spread to the Northern Caspian where salinity was higher than 4 g/l.September 2000 Beroe ovata was found for the first time in the Caspian Sea near Turkmenian coast (reported by Lavrov). Confirmation of this report with photographs or preserved specimens is not available.June-August It was shown that the main area of distribution and overwintering of M .leidyi is the Southern Caspian, and during spring-early summer it penetrates to the Middle and by August to the Northern Caspian.September Fragments of Beroe ovata was found in the Caspian Sea near Azerbaijan coast (reported by Richter, Jorgensen and Aladin). Tarasov reported in Internet that Boroe ovata invaded to the Caspian Sea couldn’t naturalize in it .September M. leidyi reached average density and biomass for all Caspian were maximal–3756 ind.m-2 and 960 mg.m-2, respectively. The density reached ind.m-2 in the Southern Caspian, which were in two times higher, than highest density in the Black.June-August Beroe ovata was found in the Caspian Sea near Dagestan coast (reported by Mamedov). Confirmation of this report with photographs or preserved specimens is not available.May Specimens of Beroe ovata collected in the Caspian Sea near Azerbaijan coast preserved in formaldehyde and acetic acid were delivered by anonym collector to Zoological Institute RAS.
27 Mnemiopsis leidyi abundance in August depending on sea area (ind./m3) from various sources including Karpyuk et al., 2003, Volovik et al. 2003, Chuikov et al. 2004YearNorthern CaspianMiddle CaspianSouthern Caspian19990.0120001.5-22-30.5-220015125320024237568220035099206022004less 400less 700no dataMay be Beroe already harvesting Mnemiopsis because its density is going down now?
28 Mnemiopsis could survive in Baltic Sea waters with high thermal pollution.
29 Distribution of Mnemiopsis leidyi in Europe Some scientists including us believe that Mnemiopsis could invade Baltic Sea from via Baltic Straits.
30 What we have to do if Mnemiopsis will appear in the Baltic Sea? What we have to do in order to prevent Mnemiopsis invasion to the Baltic Sea?We need to control ballast waters of coming ships.We need to decrease thermal pollution of the Baltic Sea.We need to monitor biodiversity of thermal polluted and harbor zones.We need to study all parameters of Mnemiopsis natural history.What we have to do if Mnemiopsis will appear in the Baltic Sea?We need to monitor invasion.We need to compare chronology of previous invasions with those to the Baltic Sea.We need to find mechanical, chemical or biochemical, or even biological ways to stop or at least decrease invasion.We need to find the most “fragile” part of Mnemiopsis life cycle and use it for attack.
31 Conclusions:Risk of Mnemiopsis invasion is very high due to intensive traffic between Baltic Sea and water areas that are rich with Mnemiopsis.Risk of Mnemiopsis invasion is going to be higher due to global warming process and process of Baltic Sea possible salinization.Mnemiopsis could survive at low temperatures up to 4°C and at low salinities up to 3 g/l. In winter time Mnemiopsis could survive in warm waters near power plants which release water to Baltic Sea.Baltic Sea littoral states should be ready for Mnemiopsis invasion. Possible measures should be discussed prior to invasion. Negative experience of invasion to Black, Azov and Caspian Seas should be studied.Baltic Sea littoral states should discuss in advance possible measures of Mnemiopsis abundance control (including introduction of Beroe).It could happen that in the case of Baltic Sea Beroe couldn’t help because in many water areas of this sea salinity and temperature are too low for Beroe naturalization.