Presentation on theme: "Chronology of Mnemiopsis and Beroe invasions to the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. Risk of Mnemiopsis invasion to the Baltic Sea. Aladin N.V. (Zoological."— Presentation transcript:
Chronology of Mnemiopsis and Beroe invasions to the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. Risk of Mnemiopsis invasion to the Baltic Sea. Aladin N.V. (Zoological Institute RAS) in co-operation with: Chuikov Yu.S. (Environment Protection Agency of Astrakhan Region), Panov V.E. and Plotnikov I.S. (Zoological Institute RAS) HELCOM-BSRP Meeting on Ballast Waters Klaipeda-Palanga, February 22-24, 2005
Caspian Sea regarding the largest lakes of the World In the brackets there is area in sq. km, area of the Aral Sea is given for 1960
Water bodies of the Palaeocaspian (by Aladin, Plotnikov, 2000) A – Balakhanian; B – Akchagylian; C – Postakchagylian; D – Apsheronian; E – Turkianian; F – Bakuvian; G – Venedian or Ushtalian; H – the Early Khazarian; I – the Late Khazarian; J – Atelian; K – the Early Khvalynian; L – Enotaevian; M – the Late Khvalynian; N – Mangyshlakian; O – the New Caspian; P – the present.
Changes in palaeohalinity of Pont-Aral-Caspian during last 15 mln. years
Main parameters of the Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea Max. length1204 km Max. width566 km Mean width204 km Volume77000 km 3 Max. depth1025 m Mean depth184 m Area km 2 The Northern Caspian Sea (huge estuary of Volga and Ural rivers) Volume0.94% Area27.73% Max. depth10 m Mean depth6.2 m The Middle Caspian Sea (Caspian Sea sensu stricta) Volume35.39% Area36.63% Max. depth770 m Mean depth175.5 m The Southern Caspian Sea (Caspian Sea sensu stricta) Volume63.67% Area35.64% Max. depth1025 m Mean depth325 m
Caspian Sea water surface area
Average Ion Composition in the World Ocean, the Caspian Sea and River Volga According to our studies Baltic Sea water with salinity 5 g/l is equivalent to Caspian water with salinity 6.65 g/l and Baltic Sea water with salinity 8 g/l is equivalent to Caspian water with salinity g/l.
Mean salinity (g/l) on the surface in the Caspian Sea
Mean salinity (g/l) in the Northern Caspian Sea
Mean temperature (˚C) on the surface in the Caspian Sea
Faunal Composition of Free-Living Metazoa of the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas
Faunal composition of free-living Metazoa of the Caspian Sea, %. a – In systematic groups: 1. Turbellaria, 2. Nematodes, 3. Rotatoria, 4. Annelida, 5. Crustacea, 6. Mollusca, 7. Pisces & Cyclostomata, 8. others. b – In faunal complexes: 1.Autochthonous, 2. Freshwater, 3. Mediterranean, 4. Arctic.
Number of species in the Caspian Sea Derzhavin (1951) & Zenkevich (1963) 476 Chesunov (1978)~ 550 Kasymov (1987)~ 950 Dumont (1998)~ 1800 Aladin et al. (2001)> 2000
Filming of Aurelia and Mnemiopsis by Kamakin & Ushivtsev in 1999
Mnemiopsis leidyi The native habitat of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi is in temperate to subtropical estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North and South America, where it is found in an extremely wide range of environmental conditions. Winter low and summer high temperatures of 2ºC and 32ºC, respectively, and salinities of < 2 to 39 g/l.
Mnemiopsis spreading over Caspian Sea
Beroe ovata Photograph is taken from Internet author and place of filming are unknown
Beroe ovata This photograph is taken by Dr Ahmet Kideys. Beroe ovata was caught near Istanbul.
Mnemiopsis population density control by Beroe
Fragment of Beroe ovata stained with alcyan blue, 50 mg/l (fixatives - acetic acid 2.5% + formaldehyde 1.5%) Photograph is taken by Dr Igor Plotnikov
In the early 1980s, Mnemiopsis leidyi was accidentally introduced to the Black Sea, where it flourished and expanded into the Azov, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Caspian Seas. In November 1982 M. leidyi for the first time was found in Sudak Bay of the Black Sea. In 1986 M. leidyi was recorded again in the coastal area of north-western Black Sea. In 1987 Mnemiopsis appeared in the north-eastern, north-western coastal waters and in the Bosporus area. June-September 1988 M. leidyi was found everywhere, at an average biomass of 1 kg WW m -2 (40 g WW m -3 ) and average abundance of c. 310 m -2 (12.4 m -3 ). In autumn 1989, the greatest mean biomass ever in the open sea 4.6 kg WW m -2 (184 g m -3 ) and greatest abundance, 7,600 ind. m -2 (304 ind. m -3 ) were measured. Chronology of Mnemiopsis invasions to the Black Sea
August Mnemiopsis leidyi was observed in the Sea of Azov for the first time. In 1989 it was a peak of Mnemiopsis abundance there which coincided with the its peak in the Black Sea. Since 1990 Mnemiopsis abundance decreased and during following years it had inter-annual fluctuations in abundance and biomass. The organisms can only survive there during the warm seasons. It is being re-introduced every year in spring - summer months through the Kerch Strait. Chronology of Mnemiopsis invasions to the Sea of Azov
Chronology of Mnemiopsis and probably Beroe invasions to the Caspian Sea Rumors about new jelly-fishes invasion to the Caspian Sea. It could be: Mnemiopsis, Beroe, or Aurelia. November Mnemiopsis leidyi was found for the first time in the Caspian Sea at the temperature ºC and salinity g/l. July 2000 M.leidyi was found everywhere in the Southern and Middle Caspian. September 2000 M.leidyi was spread to the Northern Caspian where salinity was higher than 4 g/l. September 2000 Beroe ovata was found for the first time in the Caspian Sea near Turkmenian coast (reported by Lavrov). Confirmation of this report with photographs or preserved specimens is not available. June-August It was shown that the main area of distribution and overwintering of M.leidyi is the Southern Caspian, and during spring-early summer it penetrates to the Middle and by August to the Northern Caspian. September Fragments of Beroe ovata was found in the Caspian Sea near Azerbaijan coast (reported by Richter, Jorgensen and Aladin). Tarasov reported in Internet that Boroe ovata invaded to the Caspian Sea couldnt naturalize in it. September M. leidyi reached average density and biomass for all Caspian were maximal–3756 ind.m -2 and 960 mg.m -2, respectively. The density reached ind.m -2 in the Southern Caspian, which were in two times higher, than highest density in the Black. June-August Beroe ovata was found in the Caspian Sea near Dagestan coast (reported by Mamedov). Confirmation of this report with photographs or preserved specimens is not available. May Specimens of Beroe ovata collected in the Caspian Sea near Azerbaijan coast preserved in formaldehyde and acetic acid were delivered by anonym collector to Zoological Institute RAS.
Mnemiopsis leidyi abundance in August depending on sea area (ind./m 3 ) from various sources including Karpyuk et al., 2003, Volovik et al. 2003, Chuikov et al YearNorthern Caspian Middle Caspian Southern Caspian less 400less 700no data May be Beroe already harvesting Mnemiopsis because its density is going down now?
Mnemiopsis could survive in Baltic Sea waters with high thermal pollution.
Distribution of Mnemiopsis leidyi in Europe Some scientists including us believe that Mnemiopsis could invade Baltic Sea from via Baltic Straits.
1.What we have to do in order to prevent Mnemiopsis invasion to the Baltic Sea? We need to control ballast waters of coming ships. We need to decrease thermal pollution of the Baltic Sea. We need to monitor biodiversity of thermal polluted and harbor zones. We need to study all parameters of Mnemiopsis natural history. 2.What we have to do if Mnemiopsis will appear in the Baltic Sea? We need to monitor invasion. We need to compare chronology of previous invasions with those to the Baltic Sea. We need to find mechanical, chemical or biochemical, or even biological ways to stop or at least decrease invasion. We need to find the most fragile part of Mnemiopsis life cycle and use it for attack.
Conclusions: 1.Risk of Mnemiopsis invasion is very high due to intensive traffic between Baltic Sea and water areas that are rich with Mnemiopsis. 2.Risk of Mnemiopsis invasion is going to be higher due to global warming process and process of Baltic Sea possible salinization. 3.Mnemiopsis could survive at low temperatures up to 4°C and at low salinities up to 3 g/l. In winter time Mnemiopsis could survive in warm waters near power plants which release water to Baltic Sea. 4.Baltic Sea littoral states should be ready for Mnemiopsis invasion. Possible measures should be discussed prior to invasion. Negative experience of invasion to Black, Azov and Caspian Seas should be studied. 5.Baltic Sea littoral states should discuss in advance possible measures of Mnemiopsis abundance control (including introduction of Beroe). 6.It could happen that in the case of Baltic Sea Beroe couldnt help because in many water areas of this sea salinity and temperature are too low for Beroe naturalization.