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Biology 3A – plants and water

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1 Biology 3A – plants and water

2 Plant transport systems

3 Forces acting on transport

4 Forces in the leaves Transpiration – water lost from leaves
Evapo-transpiration – water lost from leaves as water evaporates Transpiration stream – water is pulled up the stem as water is lost from the leaves in transpiration

5 Forces in the stems Adhesion – water molecules stick to the sides of the walls in the xylem Cohesion – water molecules stick to each other Capillarity/capillary action – water is drawn upwards through thin tubes

6 Forces in the roots Active transport – salts are actively absorbed, increasing the osmotic pressure within the roots Osmosis – water is pulled in due to the concentration gradients

7 Translocation

8 Movement of sugar Translocation – movement of sugar – the sugar is actively transported from leaf to phloem (source) and from phloem to roots (sink), thus setting up a concentration gradient from leaf to roots Diffusion – sugar will diffuse downwards because of this concentration gradient Osmosis – water will be pulled out of the xylem near the leaves, and move downwards, then return to the xylem near the roots, due to the concentration gradient.

9 Plant transport systems
Roles of Leaves – carry out photosynthesis and transpiration Stomata – allow water and gases to enter and leave the leaf. Opening is controlled by guard cells Xylem – transports water and salts upwards Phloem – transports sugars, mostly downward Roots – draw in water and salts Root hairs – increase surface area

10 Leaves and stomata 1

11 Leaves and stomata 2 Leaves are responsible for photosynthesis and exchange of gases and water Gases and water enter and leave through the stomata Epidermis provides protection Palisade cells carry out photosynthesis The spongy mesophyll layer allows storage of air and water vapour Vascular bundles contain xylem and phloem for the transport of water, salts and sugars

12 Control of stomal opening

13 Control of stomal opening 2
Stomatal opening is controlled by turgor pressure in the guard cells This is controlled by pumping salts into the cells, thus bringing in more water (opening stoma) or pumping salts out of the cells, thus forcing water to leave (closing stoma) Turgor pressure increases when water availability is high Turgor pressure decreases when water availability is low

14 Structures in the stem

15 Xylem and phloem Xylem Phloem Dead Living Thick Lignin Impermeable
Cells living/dead Dead Living Cell walls: Thickness Material Permeability Thick Lignin Impermeable Thin Cellulose Permeable Cross walls None Sieve plates Cytoplasm Yes Function Carries water & salts Carries sugars Direction of flow Upwards Down and up Special features Fibres Companion cells

16 Roots and water transport
Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates and WH Freeman

17 Root hairs and water transport
Water moves in by osmosis Osmotic pressure in root hair cell is higher than in soil This can be maintained by active transport of salts into the root hairs Root hairs increase the surface area available

18 Measuring water loss This can be done with a device called a potometer
The rate of transpiration is shown by movement of a bubble of air through the tubing Key features include – air tight seal between plant and tubing, narrow tubing, intact stem (cut under water so it will draw up water), air bubble, scale

19 Water loss in plants Factors affecting water loss Temperature Humidity
Air movement Water availability Light intensity Decreasing water loss also decreases photosynthesis

20 Arid regions Usually hot and dry eg Australian & African deserts & savannah Can be cold & dry eg icecaps & tundra

21 Plant adaptations - arid
Problems faced Water availability low Humidity low Temperature high Light high Air movement high Solutions include Increased roots – either deep or wide and shallow Water storage (roots, leaves or stems) eg cacti, boabs Reduced leaves Reduced stomata in leaves Protection for leaves – cuticle, thick epidermis, curling, sunken pits, hairs to guard stomata Closing stomata in hot conditions

22 Arid region adaptations
Water storage Reduced leaves Reduced leaves Wide shallow root system Water storage - succulent leaves Water storage - trunk Reduced leaves – loses leaves in summer Long deep roots

23 Coastal environments Hot, dry, saline, moving sand which can cover plants

24 Plant adaptations - coastal
Problems faced Water availability low Humidity low Temperature high Light high Air movement high – lots of sand and salt Solutions include Wide shallow root systems Rapid growth Can cope with burial Rolled leaves, sunken stomata, reduced stomata and/or hairs Succulent leaves Salt secretion in leaves

25 Rainforest Low light, high humidity

26 Plant adaptations - wet
Problems faced Water availability high Humidity high Temperature varies -high (tropical) to medium (temperate) Light can vary – high in the canopy, low at ground level Air movement usually low Solutions include Large leaves to trap light Deep veins to carry water away from plant Usually many stoma and thin epidermis Large air spaces within leaves

27 Aquatic environments Plenty of water, problems with water logging/lack of air Marine and estuarine plants must cope with high salinity

28 Plant adaptations - aquatic
Problems faced Water availability high Humidity usually high Temperature varies Light usually high (may vary if plant deeper under water) Air low Solutions include Stomata on surfaces of leaves (eg water lilies) Large air spaces for buoyancy and gas storage Aerial roots (eg mangroves) Salt secretion in leaves (mangroves)

29 Cold and arctic environments
Cold, restricted water availability in winter (snow and ice), reduced light in winter

30 Plant adaptations - cold
Problems faced Water availability seasonal - low at some times, higher at others Humidity seasonal - low at some times, higher at others Temperature seasonal - low at some times, higher at others Light seasonal - low at some times, higher at others Air movement seasonal - low at some times, higher at others Solutions include Deep root systems Annuals - rapid growth, seeding and then die over winter Bulbs – leaves die back during winter Rolled leaves, reduced leaves (conifers) Dropped leaves and dormancy (deciduous trees) Antifreeze sap or resin in conifers – prevents cells bursting when frozen

31 Leaf adaptations 1

32 Leaf adaptations 2

33 Leaf adaptations 3 Look at the stomata in these leaves.
Which of these is most likely to be adapted to arid conditions? This one- it has fewer stomata

34 Leaf adaptations 4 What adaptations can be seen in these that allow them to survive arid conditions? Reduced stoma Sunken pits Thick cuticle and epidermis Rolled leaf Thick cuticle and epidermis Rolled leaf Sunken pits Hairs to protect stoma

35 Leaf adaptations 5 What adaptations can be seen in these that allow them to survive in aquatic conditions?

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