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© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Marco R. Thiele and Rod P. Batycky StreamSim Technologies Special thanks you to Nobuo Nishikiori, Arabian Oil Company, for field data set. Water Injection Optimization Using a Streamline-Based Workflow SPE ATCE Denver, CO – October 2003 SPE 84040
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Outline 1.Objectives and introduction to streamline simulation. 2.The seed: additional data supplied by streamlines. 3.Waterflood optimization. 4.A workflow. 5.Example application.
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Introduction – Biz Objectives Analogues Decline Curve Analysis Material Balance/Type Curve Analysis Streamline Simulation Finite Difference Simulation Integrated Production Modeling Develop/obtain knowledge Synthesis and analysis Performance Tools (simulation) Obtain and use key data People Business objectives: grow production, reserves, cash flow Make and execute decisions Strategies & recommendations (after Pande 2003) Increasing complexity,time, skill, knowledge Performance Tools
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies IntroductionStreamline Sim. (From Y. Gautier et al., 1999) GeologyPressure StreamlinesCompositions Solve transport problem along 1D streamlines rather than on an underlying 3D computational grid. Efficient solution of transport problem finer grids, speed but also visualization & new data.
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Modern Streamline Simulation 1.SLs are traced in 3D. 2.Conservation equations along SLs are in terms of TOF. 3.SLs are updated in time to reflect changing reservoir conditions. 4.Numerical 1D solutions along SLs. 5.Gravity 6.Compressibility
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies The seedNew Data from SLs Streamlines are able to quantify injector/producer relationships:
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies The seedFlux Pattern Map
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies The seed – Injection Efficiency Injection Efficiency: I eff for injector or for each producer-injector pair; changes with time. Works as a ratio of rates (instantaneous) or cumulative volumes (average) Can be used for any injection volume type.
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Injection efficiencies can be used to automatically identify well pairs with extreme water cycling. Water Injected Oil Produced The seed – Injection Efficiency
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Waterflood Optimization Objective best use of injected volumes …for displacement purposes, not re-pressurization. Increase rates in high efficiency connections, decrease rates in low efficiency connections. Must increase/decrease rates at both producers and injectors.
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Waterflood Optimization Once well pairs are identified, use a weighting function to decide how much volume to shift from low to high efficiency injectors.
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Workflow Calculate efficiencies using last know rates. Re-allocate rates using weights from equation. Simulate forward by t using new rates. t,q t,q n+1 t+ t,q n+1
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Waterflood Optimization
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Middle Eastern Limestone Res. Compressible SL simulation 8 producers / 5 injectors Acceptable HM Objective: plan future water injection.
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Middle Eastern Limestone Res. SLs by Injectors SLs by Producers
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Middle Eastern Limestone Res. Flux Pattern Map by Injectors (beginning of optimization)
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Middle Eastern Limestone Res. Flux Pattern Map by Injectors (end of optimization – 5 years)
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Middle Eastern Limestone Res. 10 optimization steps (6 months /step) T T + 5 Years
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Middle Eastern Limestone Res. Streamline simulation a complementary tool to finite difference simulation Take optimized reservoir rates from SLs and feed to finite-difference simulator: Analogues Decline Curve Analysis Material Balance/Type Curve Analysis Streamline Simulation Finite Difference Simulation Integrated Production Modeling Performance Tools
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Optimized Period Optimized Not optimized Middle Eastern Limestone Res. Oil Water
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Conclusions Streamlines offer a powerful new way to optimize flooding operations: Well allocation data Flux Pattern Map Streamlines complementary to more traditional simulation approaches. Procedure is automatic ability to optimize large fields/many wells.
© 2003 by Streamsim Technologies Thank you.
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