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Water Absorption Biochar Properties Micropore Sponge Tar & Resin Residues Soil Water Filtration Immense internal capacity Soil porosity & permeability.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Absorption Biochar Properties Micropore Sponge Tar & Resin Residues Soil Water Filtration Immense internal capacity Soil porosity & permeability."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Absorption Biochar Properties Micropore Sponge Tar & Resin Residues Soil Water Filtration Immense internal capacity Soil porosity & permeability Gradual release Keeps soil wetter Keeps microbiology active in drought Black specks, shiny in sunlight Oily hydrocarbons Initially hydrophobic VOC and PAH: multi-ring carbons Carbon-ring candy: feast for microbes Absorption, followed by adsorption Water quality in watersheds Role of microbes in filtration and Soil Food Web Sand Biofilter + Biochar

2 Ion Adsorption Adsorb (verb) Physical Chemistry to gather on a surface in a condensed layer Adsorb: charcoal will adsorb gases Adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to create a film on a surface of the adsorbent. Adsorb (gas, liquid, or dissolved solid) Adsorption is a surface process. Absorption involves the whole volume of material. Sorption applies to both processes. Desorption is the reverse of adsorption, and is thus a surface phenomenon. This differs from Absorption, where a fluid permeates or is dissolved by or into a solid, such as: water is absorbed by a sponge. d Biochar Properties

3 Cations are made when atoms give up one or more electrons Cations Oxygen becomes a mild negative () charge Hydrogens each have a slight positive (+) charge + Adsorb (verb) Physical Chemistry to gather on a surface in a condensed layer: Each element has different attraction for electrons Cations (+)Anions () Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium most Trace Elements Hydrogen has a weak attraction for electrons Oxygen has a strong attraction for electrons Typically, Adsorption is an electric attraction between atoms and molecules quite different from Absorption Anions form when atoms gain one or more electrons and thus have a positive (+) charge + and thus have a negative () charge In a water molecule, Hydrogen yields its electron Oxygen attracts two electrons Thus, a water molecule has an electric polarity, H 2 O water molecule Anions Ion Adsorption Biochar Properties

4 hydrogen bond + Adsorb (verb) Physical Chemistry to gather on a surface in a condensed layer: Typically, Adsorption is an electric attraction between atoms and molecules H2OH2O water molecule + An H 2 O water molecule is not an Ion, protons + electrons = because it has no net electric charge But water molecules do have electric polarity, and attract ions and other polarized molecules including other water molecules. with opposite electric charge, A useful example of attraction between polarized molecules is the hydrogen bond between adjacent water molecules. Hydrogen bonds make water wet and stick to itself. This slight electric attraction makes water a great solvent, and gives water structure as a liquid crystal. + + Cations (+) Anions () Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium most Trace Elements D eoxyribo N ucleic A cid balance = Ion Adsorption Biochar Properties

5 Humic substance C 27 O 20 H x very low molecular weight Adsorb (verb) Physical Chemistry to gather on a surface in a condensed layer: Typically, Adsorption is an electric attraction between atoms and molecules Humus and biochar molecules These are very large molecules This attraction quickly gets much more complex with biocarbon molecules consist of tens, hundreds, Nitrogens with multiple carbon rings, and embedded mineral Ions. Each ring, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and mineral Ion is an electric charge on the surface of the molecule. even thousands of carbons. Each charge site will attract and adsorb Ions of opposite polarity. and Oxygens, Humic substance C 72 O 33 N 4 H x + 2 R low molecular weight Cations (+) Anions () Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium most Trace Elements Ion Adsorption Biochar Properties

6 Adsorb (verb) Physical Chemistry to gather on a surface in a condensed layer: Typically, Adsorption is an electric attraction between atoms and molecules This attraction quickly gets much more complex with biocarbon molecules Humic substance C 72 O 33 N 4 H x + 2 R low molecular weight Biochar micropores provide a huge internal Ion adsorption capacity, hundreds, even thousands times greater than other soil substances. Thus, charcoal is an ideal media to filter and purify water. Biochars advantage is to adsorb both Cations (+)and Anions (), Including Nitrogen & Phosphorus. NitrogenPhosphorus Simple mineral ions Complex organic ions Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Cations (+) Anions () Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium most Trace Elements Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine Ion Adsorption Biochar Properties

7 CharcoalCharcoal WaterWater NutrientSolution Miracle Gro fertilizer concentratedweak Nutrients adsorped + Cations & Anions are attracted to electric charges on char particles Microbes can free elements chemically bound in soil and rocks Pure water run thru all day barely affects ion concentrations, and gradually removed from the soil-water solution. by an active digestive process different from exchanging ions. Adsorped ions are loosely held, not bonded Hydrometer pump Charcoal adsorption removes and neutralizes toxic chemicals This electric attraction is like waters hydrogen bond Adsorb (verb) Physical Chemistry to gather on a surface in a condensed layer: Cation Exchange Capacity Anion Exchange Capacity Slowly, the ion concentration in solution will drop because ions are adsorped onto and into char particles, and held. Adsorption also holds nutrient ions safely in soil Cations (+) Anions () Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium most Trace Elements Ion Adsorption Biochar Properties H+ traded for nutrient ions


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