1. Fill a beaker with 100mL of water. This represents all water on Earth. 2. How much of the water do you think is contained in saltwater? Measure using.

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1. Fill a beaker with 100mL of water. This represents all water on Earth. 2. How much of the water do you think is contained in saltwater? Measure using the graduated cylinder. 3. Pour 97 mL of water into the graduated cylinder. 97% of all water is trapped as saltwater. Dump out the 97 mL of water. 4. How much of the remaining water is in polar ice and glaciers? Measure with the graduated cylinder. 5. Pour 2 mL of water into the graduated cylinder. 2% of all available water is in polar ice and glaciers. Dump out the 2 mL of water 6. The remaining water represents the amount of freshwater on Earth. This includes water in reservoirs and lakes and underground.

Water: Covers ¾ of the Earths surface, but less than half of one percent is available fresh water Single most abundant compound in most living things Expands when freezes so ice is less dense that water http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LAH7szGzJA

The Water Olympics

Presence of partial positive and negative charges causing attraction Due to an uneven distribution of electronics between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms Negative pole is near the oxygen and the positive pole between the hydrogen Greater probability of finding the shared electrons near the oxygen

Hydrogen bonds occur in polar molecules containing hydrogen bonded to a highly electronegative atom (like water). The positive ends align with negative ends of other polar molecules

Does Soap Propel? How did that work? Soap is an emulsifier. It interferes with the surface tension of water by coming between water molecules

How Many Pennies? How did that work? Water displayed cohesion and adhesion without the soap When soap was introduced, it interfered with water cohesion and surface tension by coming between the water molecules.

attraction between molecules of the same substance

attraction between molecules of different substances

tendency of water to rise in a thin tube The Ventauri Effect: Fluids flow faster when forced through narrow spaces

Penny Drops Pour Water Sideways Water Stretch Merging Streams Water Tubes Soap Boat Race

physically combined A material composed of 2 or more elements or compounds physically combined

If a crystal of table salt is placed in a glass of warm water, sodium and chloride ions on the surface of the crystal are attracted to the polar water molecules. Ions break away from the crystal and are surrounded by water molecules and become evenly distributed throughout (concentration).

Allows it to dissolve ionic compounds (ionic) and polar covalent compounds (sugar)

Which compound, salt or sugar, will be more soluble in water? Why?

Water Has a High Specific Heat The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a substance 1 0 C Water can absorb a large amount of heat without significantly changing temperature.

Use Vernier to Analyze Graphs of Temperatures on Earth

Ice Floats Less dense than water Molecular motion slows during cooling allowing for formation of maximum number of hydrogen bonds Crystal structure allows for air space Air allows ice to insulate water below allowing for life to survive beneath

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