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Sponsored By: Las Animas County Cattlemens Association Las Animas County Health Department Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. Trinidad & Las Animas County.

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Presentation on theme: "Sponsored By: Las Animas County Cattlemens Association Las Animas County Health Department Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. Trinidad & Las Animas County."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sponsored By: Las Animas County Cattlemens Association Las Animas County Health Department Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. Trinidad & Las Animas County Chamber of Commerce Trinidad State Junior College Vista GeoScience LLC

2 Common Issues for Well Owners Poor Water Production (Quantity) General Water Quality Odors and/or Taste Color, Staining or Sediment Natural Gas (Methane) in Water Solutions, Testing & Maintenance Resources Available

3 Las Animas County Construction of Water Wells Who Regulates? Division of Water Resources (DWR) State Engineers Office (SEO) Permits & Well Ownership Transfers Board of Examiners (BOE) of Water Well Construction and Pump Installation Contractors Licensing & Certification Construction & Design Rules Protection of Ground Water Your Well Permit & Construction Record Files

4 Common Aquifer Types Alluvial Aquifer Stream Valley Sands and Gravels Generally Shallower Bedrock Aquifer Sandstone, Siltstone, Shale or Coal Porous or fractured Rocks Generally Deeper AQUIFER: The water bearing sediment or rock your well is drilled into

5 Alluvial Wells Surface Casing Filter pack Well Seal

6 Bedrock Well With a well seal & filter pack, or Open bore completion

7 Open Borehole Bedrock Well Harder Formation Steel Surface Casing No filter-pack or Annular Seals

8 Poor Water Production (Quantity) Well Yield = Gallons Per Minute 1 Gallon per Minute = 1400 Gallons per Day Does Your Well Go Dry? Seasonally or Under Heavy Use? Could be from: Tight or Low-Flowing Aquifer Dry Season – Low Water Table Drawdown (Over-pumping) Fouling of the Well Screen or Pump Pump Damage or Failure Poor Well Design or Construction Approaching Lifespan of the Water Well

9 Yield in Alluvial Aquifers Yield in Alluvial Aquifers Better Yield Sands Gravels Poor Yield Silts Clays

10 Yield in Bedrock Aquifers Better Yield Sandstone Fractured Rocks Lower Yield Claystone (Shale) Siltstone SHALE

11 Seasonal Fluctuation or Drought Spring/Summer Fall/Winter High water level Low water level

12 Drawdown Over-Pumping of the Aquifer NO PUMPING

13 Fouling (blockage) of the Well Screen or Pump Silts and Clays Encrustation Hard Water Iron Bio-Fouling Bacteria Growth

14 Poor Well Design or Construction Minimum Construction Requirements were Met? May not be adequate Sand/Gravel Filter or Open Bore Post-Drilling Development (Required Cleaning after Drilling) Adequate Bore-Hole Diameter/Depth Casing Size & Screen Type Is the Casing too big for the bore

15 Solutions to Low-Yield Wells ISSUES: Naturally Low Yielding Aquifer Seasonal drop in ground water table, or drought Drawdown (over- pumping of the aquifer) SOLUTIONS: Install a Cistern Drill a deeper well Reduce usage

16 Solutions to Low-Yield Wells ISSUES: Pump Failure Fouled Screens or Pump Poor well design or construction Limited lifespan of the water well SOLUTIONS: Inspect, Repair Pump Redevelop the well Chemical, or Physical Cleaning of Well Last Resort : Drill a New Well.

17 Limited Lifespan of a Water Well Typically years to decades: The Geology Well Design/Construction Maintenance Normal Corrosion/ Wear & Tear Amount of Use/Pumping

18 General Water Quality :

19 ODORS My water smells! BACTERIA! Stagnant Water Smell Septic Tanks Like Odors Rotten Egg or Sulfur Smell Bacteria + Sulfates in Well = Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Your nose is very sensitive to this gas SOLUTION: Chemical treatment or other cleaning by an expert Look around for sources Testing, inspection, and maintenance

20 TASTE Tastes Metallic or Salty! Dissolved Mineral Content Bacteria Nitrates SOLUTION: Water quality testing by an expert Check whether some minerals are above drinking water standards. Filtration and treatment system See CDPHE for guidance on drinking standards.

21 COLOR Dissolved Minerals Excessive Bacteria Activity Sediment SOLUTION: Water Quality test Bacterial Activity Reaction Test (BART) Chemical well treatment for bacteria issues and/or Well filtration/treatment system for high mineral content

22 SEDIMENT Grit / Particulates Cloudy Water - Settles Causes: Improper or damaged well screens Poor well development: original drilling, or formation debris is getting into the well Lack of a sand/filter pack around the screens SOLUTION: Filtration systems/traps can remove some sediment Redevelop and clean well if not done originally Contact a consultant or licensed pump installer for options

23 GAS BUBBLES It looks like soda water! Causes: Dissolved Air or Natural Gas - Methane and/or Carbon Dioxide Sources Natural Bacteria Coal Bed Methane Raton & Vermejo Formation Las Animas County, West of I-25

24 COAL BED METHANE DESORPTION

25 NATURAL GAS (METHANE) Is natural gas (methane) hazardous? Non-Toxic. Not Regulated by EPA. Flammable & Explosive (5% in air) SOLUTION: If suspected: Request a dissolved methane test. If methane is in your water, test the air in the home. Methane Mitigation Systems Vented Cistern Methane or Gas Removal System (works for methane, radon, other gases)

26 Potential Impacts to Water Wells

27 Malfunctioning septic systems Fuel spills Chemical pesticides or fertilizers Household hazardous wastes, paints and solvents storage and spills Road salt runoff Livestock manure, animal feces Improperly abandoned historic mines & wells Contamination & spills from nearby industry

28 Livestock Pen, Well Head & Cistern

29 Testing, Maintenance & Treatment Have your well records on hand (DWR-SEO) Maintain and Test your Well Laboratory Testing Colorado Dept. of Health & Environment (CDPHE) Lab Private Water Testing Labs Well Maintenance Contractors Well Drilling & Pump Contractors Licensed through the DWR-SEO Optionally Certified by a NGWA Consultants Hydrogeologists Certified Water Well Maintenance Contractors

30 Resources Laboratory Testing & Information CDPHE & Private Labs EPA - The Safe Drinking Water Hotline Consultants & Experts Colorado Ground Water Association - coloradogroundwater.org Well Drilling Contractors DWR-SEO (Permits, Licensed Water Well/Pump Contractor) Colorado Water Well Contractors Assoc. - cwwca.org National Ground Water Association - wellowner.org Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission Well Owner Associations National Ground Water Association - wellowner.org Water Systems Council - Well Owners Network - watersystemscouncil.org American Ground Water Trust – agwt.org

31 The Goal: To insure your water is enjoyed by everyone!

32 THANK YOU Sponsored By: Sponsored By: Las Animas County Cattlemens Association Las Animas County Cattlemens Association Las Animas County Health Department Las Animas County Health Department Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. Trinidad & Las Animas County Chamber of Commerce Trinidad & Las Animas County Chamber of Commerce Trinidad State Junior College Trinidad State Junior College Vista GeoScience LLC Vista GeoScience LLC This presentation is intended to provide general information regarding water wells. It is not intended to address any specific circumstances regarding individual water wells. For specific questions regarding your individual circumstances contact one of the agencies listed above or a qualified water well maintenance or repair contractor. The sponsors make no representation express or implied as to the accuracy or completeness of the information in this presentation, and are under no obligation to update or correct such information. The sponsors expressly disclaim any liability resulting from the use of this presentation or any errors therein or omissions there from.


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