4Milk Jug Demonstration 97% of the Earth’s water is saltwater.3% is freshwater.¾ of freshwater is frozen in polar icecaps.That means only 1% of the water on Earth is usable!
5Water on the Planet Hydrosphere: all water on earth Cryosphere: the frozen part of the earth
6Part I: Surface WaterDefinition:Fresh water that is above ground in lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams.
7Watershed: The entire area of land that is drained by a river. Part I: Surface WaterWatershed:The entire area of land that is drained by a river.
8Part I: Surface WaterProblems with rivers:40% of the world’s people rely on water that originates in other countries!
9Water rights problems will worsen as population increases. Part I: Surface WaterTurkey is building dams that will reduce the amount of water that flows to Syria and Iraq.Water rights problems will worsen as population increases.
10DamsThe water behind a dam forms a reservoir (artificial lake) can hurt fish populations.Reservoirs are used for drinking, manufacturing, irrigation, flood control, and electricity.
11Part II: GroundwaterDefinitionWater that seeps into the ground and is stored. Makes millions of years to collect.
12Area of land from which groundwater originates. Part II: GroundwaterRecharge ZoneArea of land from which groundwater originates.
13Part II: GroundwaterAquiferGroundwater stored in underground rock formations. Runs out with overuse.
14Part III: Water Shortage Solutions DesalinizationDesalting the seaProvides drinking water in Saudi Arabia and parts of California.Very expensive
15Part III: Water Shortage Solutions Towing WaterUsed to transport icebergsProblemsHard to towMelts rapidlyTransportation on land
22How? Good Question! Take shorter showers! Low-flow faucets and shower heads!Turn the water off when brushing your teeth or soaping up your hands!Here are some great sites to help!
23Freshwater PollutionPutting chemical, physical, or biological stuff into water that makes the quality of water go down affects organisms that live in it or drink it!
24Industrialization and human population explosion. CausesIndustrialization and human population explosion.Both produce waste products that cannot be disposed of as fast as they are produced!
25Point PollutionPollution that is discharged from a single source, such as a factory or wastewater.Or Treatment plant, or an oil tanker.Easy to regulate and control. Why?Because it is easily identified and traced.
26Nonpoint PollutionPollution that comes from many sources rather than from a specific site (96% of polluted water is from nonpoint pollution).Reaches bodies of water via streets and storm sewers.Pesticides and fertilizers washed off lawns and farmland.Animal feces from farms, parks, and city streets.Nonpoint regulation is difficult to regulate and control. Why?
31Thermal PollutionWhen excessive amounts of heat are added to a body of water.Power plants and industries use river water to cool engines and then return heated water back to its source.Causes massive fish kills.Warm water cannot hold as much oxygen! (suffocation)Nonpoint pollution hard to control! WHY?!
33From polluted rivers or pumped directly. Oil spills 1989 Exxon Valdez SourcesFrom polluted rivers or pumped directly.Oil spills1989 Exxon Valdez1991 Gulf War2010 Gulf of Mexico
341989 Exxon ValdezWorst spill in U.S. until 2010Prince William Sound in AlaskaTanker grounded on reef – drunken captain, only one officer on deck, fatigue,Spilled 257,000 barrels (17 Olympic size swimming pools)Some species have still not recovered
361991 Gulf WarIraqi troops purposely dumped 5.7 million barrels of Kuwaiti oil.No immediate cleanup, so oil settled into sedimentSandy beaches have recovered, but not marshes.Worst oil spill in history
382010 Gulf of MexicoDeep Water Horizon Oil Rig exploded & spilled 5 billion barrels of oil.Making it the worst oil spill in the U.S. & history.One year later after massive cleanup efforts only some wildlife has recovered.The variety of life in the wetlands is still categorized as poor
39Laws that prevent discharging oils or plastics, toxic dumping, etc. PreventionLaws that prevent discharging oils or plastics, toxic dumping, etc.Create marine refuges to protect endangered animals.Double hulls on oil tankers.
40Boundaries difficult to set or enforce. ProblemWho owns the oceans?Boundaries difficult to set or enforce.
41Cleaning Up Water Pollution 1972: Clean Water ActRestore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nation’s waters.Many toxic metals now removed from wastewater!