Presentation on theme: "Water Pollution Unit 12. Water H 2 O A compound Earth 25% land 75% water."— Presentation transcript:
Water Pollution Unit 12
Water H 2 O A compound
Earth 25% land 75% water
Milk Jug Demonstration 97% of the Earths water is saltwater. 3% is freshwater. – ¾ of freshwater is frozen in polar icecaps. – That means only 1% of the water on Earth is usable!
Water on the Planet Hydrosphere: all water on earth Cryosphere: the frozen part of the earth
Part I: Surface Water Definition: – Fresh water that is above ground in lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams.
Part I: Surface Water Watershed: – The entire area of land that is drained by a river.
Part I: Surface Water Problems with rivers: – 40% of the worlds people rely on water that originates in other countries!
Part I: Surface Water Turkey is building dams that will reduce the amount of water that flows to Syria and Iraq. Water rights problems will worsen as population increases.
Dams The water behind a dam forms a reservoir (artificial lake) can hurt fish populations. – Reservoirs are used for drinking, manufacturing, irrigation, flood control, and electricity.
Part II: Groundwater Definition – Water that seeps into the ground and is stored. Makes millions of years to collect.
Part II: Groundwater Recharge Zone – Area of land from which groundwater originates.
Part II: Groundwater Aquifer – Groundwater stored in underground rock formations. Runs out with overuse.
Part III: Water Shortage Solutions Desalinization – Desalting the sea – Provides drinking water in Saudi Arabia and parts of California. – Very expensive
Part III: Water Shortage Solutions Towing Water – Used to transport icebergs – Problems Hard to tow Melts rapidly Transportation on land
Part III: Water Shortage Solutions Reverse Osmosis – The process of removing minerals from water. – Uses water pressure and permeable membranes.
Current Water Uses Agriculture Industry Homes Mining Can you think of more? Can you think of the greatest use?
Water Conservation Amount of freshwater available at a given time is limited so we must conserve!
How? Good Question! Take shorter showers! Low-flow faucets and shower heads! Turn the water off when brushing your teeth or soaping up your hands! Here are some great sites to help! – http://www.epa.gov/nps/chap3.html http://www.epa.gov/nps/chap3.html – http://www.wateruseitwisely.com/100-ways-to- conserve/index.php http://www.wateruseitwisely.com/100-ways-to- conserve/index.php – http://www.americanwater.com/49ways.htm http://www.americanwater.com/49ways.htm
Freshwater Pollution Putting chemical, physical, or biological stuff into water that makes the quality of water go down affects organisms that live in it or drink it!
Causes Industrialization and human population explosion. Both produce waste products that cannot be disposed of as fast as they are produced!
Point Pollution Pollution that is discharged from a single source, such as a factory or wastewater. Or Treatment plant, or an oil tanker. Easy to regulate and control. Why? Because it is easily identified and traced.
Nonpoint Pollution Pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a specific site (96% of polluted water is from nonpoint pollution). – Reaches bodies of water via streets and storm sewers. – Pesticides and fertilizers washed off lawns and farmland. – Animal feces from farms, parks, and city streets. – Nonpoint regulation is difficult to regulate and control. Why?
How Water Pollution Affects Ecosystems
Bioaccumulation Adding on larger and larger amounts of toxins within animals in the food chain.
Eutrofication Too many nutrients in water from decomposing animals, sewage and fertilizer runoff. Lots of oxygen used up in the process.
Thermal Pollution When excessive amounts of heat are added to a body of water. – Power plants and industries use river water to cool engines and then return heated water back to its source. – Causes massive fish kills. – Warm water cannot hold as much oxygen! (suffocation) – Nonpoint pollution hard to control! WHY?!
Sources From polluted rivers or pumped directly. Oil spills – 1989 Exxon Valdez – 1991 Gulf War – 2010 Gulf of Mexico
1989 Exxon Valdez Worst spill in U.S. until 2010 Prince William Sound in Alaska Tanker grounded on reef – drunken captain, only one officer on deck, fatigue, Spilled 257,000 barrels (17 Olympic size swimming pools) Some species have still not recovered
Prince William Sound & Exxon Valdez
1991 Gulf War Iraqi troops purposely dumped 5.7 million barrels of Kuwaiti oil. No immediate cleanup, so oil settled into sediment Sandy beaches have recovered, but not marshes. Worst oil spill in history
2010 Gulf of Mexico
Deep Water Horizon Oil Rig exploded & spilled 5 billion barrels of oil. Making it the worst oil spill in the U.S. & history. One year later after massive cleanup efforts only some wildlife has recovered. The variety of life in the wetlands is still categorized as poor
Prevention Laws that prevent discharging oils or plastics, toxic dumping, etc. Create marine refuges to protect endangered animals. Double hulls on oil tankers.
Problem Who owns the oceans? Boundaries difficult to set or enforce.
Cleaning Up Water Pollution 1972: Clean Water Act – Restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nations waters. – Many toxic metals now removed from wastewater!