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By J.O. Obosi IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO1.

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Presentation on theme: "By J.O. Obosi IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO1."— Presentation transcript:

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2 By J.O. Obosi IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO1

3 Sessional paper no. 1 of 1999 on water in Kenya Provision of water by local authorities water sector reforms started in year 2004 WASREB- WSB- WSPs 8 WSBs in Kenya: Nairobi, Tana, Tanathi, Northern, Coast, Rift Valley, Lake Victoria North, and Lake Victoria South Commercialization of provision of water services. IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO2

4 Governance theory Water as a human right (Article 43(1)(d) Water as a human right and economic good Rolling back of the state functions: neo- liberal approach Privatization vs commercialization of water services Women rights as human rights IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO3

5 Water departments of Las converted into Water PlCs LVSWB as an agent of WASREB WSPs sign water SPAs for 5 years with WSBs WSPs included: i PLCs ii. Comm. Water Projects, iii. Private Government support through WSTF IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO4

6 A sample of 288 households including 127 headed by women randomly selected 7 WSPs under LVSWSB data from both secondary and primary sources The data analyzed using descriptive statistics results presented in simple table statistics. IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO5

7 i. Proportion of women with access to water ii. The distance to water sources iii. Households' monthly income iv. Monthly expenditure on water IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO6

8 Overall access women 44.1%; Male 55.9% Rates for women lower in rural areas 86.5% receive water within 400m 23.5% have piped water in households currently 60.1% had piped water before 2004 Order of piped water currently: Kiwasco- Mikutra- SNWSCO- Chemosit 47.7% maintained same WSP since 2004 IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO7

9 Access differed with monthly income Income spent on water affects the distance to water supply points mean distance of 290m in 2004 Current mean distance of 211.7m in all WSPs reduction in distance from respective water sources highest in Nyasare and least in Kiwasco Community projects have shorter distances than PLCs IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO8

10 Mean monthly income currently is Kshs Mean income before 2004 Kshs was Kshs 16,417 Income highest in Kiwasco( /=) and lowest in Mogombet ( /=) p.m. Income in 2004 highest at Kiwasco /=) and lowest at Boya ( /=) p.m. IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO9

11 Mean expend. on water is Kshs p.m. Mean expend.in 2004 Kshs is Kshs p.m. As proportion of current income is 2.5% As proportion income in 2004 was 1.48% p.m. Mean below UNDPs recommendation of 3% Mean expenditure higher in PLCs than in comm. Water projects IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO10

12 water sector reforms not yet increased access to affordable and quality water in the right quantity at the right time the commercialization of the water provision services has not done enough to justify its existence households have further been impoverished the water sector reforms Increased expend. On water reduced expenditure on other items by and for women IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO11

13 enhancing the direct financing of the community based water projects without going through WSBs Development of more water infrastructure to reverse the current centrifugal pattern to urban areas at the expense of rural areas IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO12

14 IMPACT OF WATER SECTOR REFORMS JOO13


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